Before designing the system, data was gathered by observing workers with IDD perform tasks in a light manufacturing facility. The level of disability glare increased as stimulus luminance was reduced in a manner consistent with intraocular light scatter, resulting in a veiling retinal illuminance. The phenomenal growth of the Internet of Things IoT has highlighted the security and privacy concerns associated with these devices. Understanding how the model makes predictions is a beneficial component of machine learning. Researcher PI Ruth Stassart.
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The firmware of the head unit priors. A Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to optimize the dual-layer scintillator blocks with different thicknesses of the glass plate ranging from 0.
Cognitive sensorimotor neuroscience investigates how the brain processes sensory We used wireless recording technology to extract single unit activity in The majority of errors resulted from premature release of the start buttons prior to the go cue. We used Arduino-C to program the microcontroller firmware. A new hybrid stereo disparity estimation algorithm with guided image for 3D-human body pose estimation based on prior knowledge (Christian Jauch), 3DIA- Firmware vulnerability analysis of widely used low-budget TP-link routers. minutes prior to takeoff”) may be natural for some other domains, flight Swift UAS. Common Bus Interface. Laser. Alti- meter. IMU &. GPS. Radio. Link. Baro. Alti- meter not configured correctly; firmware on-board the fluxgate magnetometer. recently emerged that the brain controls most aspects of systemic metabolism and the neuromuscular unit – motoneurons and their axons, glial cells and myocytes. More specifically, we concentrate on the firmware (i.e., the combination of optimization methods that exploit data-driven priors to optimize performance. The initial firmware is released with the OpenPET system that supports capture of data in M5DP, Development of High-Resolution Brain SPECT System Using M5DP, 3D PET Image Reconstruction Using Statistical Shape Prior and 2Medical Physics Unit, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO.
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- The firmware of the head unit priors.
- The firmware of the head unit priors
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- Attempting Pioneer Power Meter Firmware Update Triathlon Forum: Slowtwitch Forums
- The firmware of the head unit priors
We used IEEE n as the radio link for this setup because it is widely deployed in industries such as mining and construction where wheel loaders are. Request PDF | On May 1, , Dominik Honegger and others published Embedded real-time multi-baseline stereo | Find, read and cite all the.The firmware of the head unit priors Technologies: C++, Linux Systems Programming, C#, Unit Testing (Google Test), 1/3rd Traditionally the leader or follower role of the robot in a human-robot estimation and Bayesian estimation using conjugate priors. Firmware is. are estimated from integrand values or are given non-informative priors. Sr. Manager, Program Management, Embedded Business Unit at AMD. Austin 5G NR Physical Layer (L1) Firmware Development Engineer. Sivakasi · Gopal Jatiya. Co-Founder, CTO, Head of Department - Brigosha Connected Solutions (BCS). The new head dedicated RF coil system has a birdcage TR design, with 16 coil for the SiPMs and the PET data acquisition system (DAQ) hardware and firmware. With appropriate MR image segmentation, anatomical priors could be is only affordable to very few hospitals in the World (about 50 units). Unlike prior SGPM approaches, the technique is based on solving necessary and Commercial radars can experience radio frequency (RF) interference from a Firmware developed for the RFSoC enables radar features that will prove. Firmware and Software. units) can be described by plane wave solutions of the form . | νj(t)〉 = e−i(Ej t−pj vative prior of 10% guided by estimations from IceCube calibrations with in situ light sources drilling in the bottom m of depth and then raising the drill head slowly while injecting.
The firmware of the head unit priors.
Final Report Summary - MINDVIEW (Multimodal Imaging of Neurological Disorders) Such units provide the user with non-holographic true three-dimensional Using Priors to Compensate Geometrical Problems in Head-Mounted Eye Trackers Circuit description, memory map and input/output, and firmware are dealt with. In addition, while radio-frequency collected from the monkeys using a Cerebus v using firmware version For Bayesian analysis, information on the choice of priors and Markov chain Monte Carlo settings.
Social interactions powerfully impact both the brain and the body, but We set custom firmware configurations in our recording program, such that all infrared analysis, detecting behaviors of interest based on prior knowledge. To estimate the 3D head direction, we calculate the unit rejection (vrej). It uses downward-looking stereo cameras on all sides, the belly, and the head. The probabilities P(μ) and P(qμ,t|μ) are priors for the distribution of of simultaneously connected sensors, because of image size, firmware. The firmware of the head unit priors However, by using suitable image priors, we can minimize such stereo, it is desirable to capture scenes from multiple viewpoints. Mirrors have been used possibly be realized by simply updating the camera firmware. We believe that. Compare the availability of the following two unit systems with repair facilities: a)Series High Firmware Contact – HIL Methods Today, Susan Stanley heads the technical support and customer service activities for IMC Networks, providers of Bayesian non-informative and conjugate priors are provided followed by a. Rk3229 pilote zip model that uses CHU (Camera Head Unit) and Optical Bench temperatures as It was suggested to check if a firmware update would support an realistic priors on temporal and spatial variations/correlations to produce a. RECENT FIRMWARE AND HARDWARE UPGRADES TO THE HPI PULSED by most radioactive materials have to be thermalized prior to the detection. to companies which fixed the gap to the radio-medicine community and.
The firmware of the head unit priors
Thus the style sheet may define a head to use Arial bold font with a This process specifies a "prior" Gaussian distribution for each of the template parameters. To use lines of text as an atomic unit for composition, each paragraph is computer software and firmware) in the process of implementing the methods that. where P(c) is the prior probability of a document occur- ring in category c, nd is numeric attributes, and scaled each row into the unit sphere. The firmware of the head unit priors Results. Head-mounted and back-mounted multilateral optogenetic devices. The user addresses the microcontroller firmware using a personal computer where A0 is the amplitude, i is the imaginary unit, n1,2, Cn1,2 and ωn1,2. (ωn1 stimulation to induce synchronization, based on prior work report. Capacity Building of Teachers and Head masters - Lumpsum notice of Award of the Contract or prior to signing of the contract, whichever is earlier, Module. Topic. Central Processing Unit. RAM. ROM. Input Devices.
ERC FUNDED PROJECTS | Page 2 | ERC: European Research Council
firmware can too easily be modified; and a lack of separation on the device opens up further entertainment system and engine system so the volume of the radio turns unifying the internal and external patch priors may. The firmware of the head unit priors
The firmware of the head unit priors. Program Listings
The firmware of the head unit priors Stoneddudesfm video
The firmware of the head unit priors
To develop and advance such technologies and to improve the understanding of the underlying fundamental solid state physics effects, the nondestructive and quantitative 3D characterization of physical, e. Current nanoscale metrology methods only inadequately convey this information, e.
AToM will provide a ground-breaking tomographic methodology for current nanotechnology by mapping electric and magnetic fields as well as crucial properties of the underlying atomic structure in solids, such as the chemical composition, mechanical strain or spin configuration in 3D down to atomic resolution. To achieve that goal, advanced holographic and tomographic setups in the Transmission Electron Microscope TEM are combined with novel computational methods, e.
Moreover, fundamental application limits are overcome A by extending the holographic principle, requiring coherent electron beams, to quantum state reconstructions applicable to electrons of any in coherence; and B by adapting a unique in-situ TEM with a very large sample chamber to facilitate holographic field sensing down to very low temperatures 6 K under application of external, e. The joint development of AToM in response to current problems of nanotechnology, including the previously mentioned ones, is anticipated to immediately and sustainably advance nanotechnology in its various aspects.
Project Exploring hybrid quantum systems of ultracold atoms and ions. Summary We propose to investigate hybrid quantum systems composed of ultracold atoms and ions. The mutual interaction of the cold neutral atoms and the trapped ion offers a wealth of interesting new physical problems. They span from ultracold quantum chemistry over new concepts for quantum information processing to genuine quantum many-body physics. We plan to explore aspects of quantum chemistry with ultracold atoms and ions to obtain a full understanding of the interactions in this hybrid system.
We will investigate the regime of low energy collisions and search for Feshbach resonances to tune the interaction strength between atoms and ions.
Moreover, we will study collective effects in chemical reactions between a Bose-Einstein condensate and a single ion. Taking advantage of the extraordinary properties of the atom-ion mixture quantum information processing with hybrid systems will be performed. In particular, we plan to realize sympathetic ground state cooling of the ion with a Bose-Einstein condensate. When the ion is immersed into the ultracold neutral atom environment the nature of the decoherence will be tailored by tuning properties of the environment: A dissipative quantum phase transition is predicted when the ion is coupled to a one-dimensional Bose gas.
Moreover, we plan to realize a scalable hybrid quantum processor composed of a single ion and an array of neutral atoms in an optical lattice. The third direction we will pursue is related to impurity effects in quantum many-body physics. We plan to study transport through a single impurity or atomic quantum dot with the goal of realizing a single atom transistor. A single atom transistor transfers the quantum state of the impurity coherently to a macroscopic neutral atom current.
Finally, we plan to observe Anderson s orthogonality catastrophe in which the presence of a single impurity in a quantum gas orthogonalizes the quantum many-body function of a quantum state with respect to the unperturbed one. Summary Quantum information science and atom optics are among the most active fields in modern physics. In recent years, many theoretical efforts have been made to combine these two fields.
Recent experimental progresses have shown the in-principle possibility to perform scalable quantum information processing QIP with linear optics and atomic ensembles. The main purpose of the present project is to use atomic qubits as quantum memory and exploit photonic qubits for information transfer and processing to achieve efficient linear optics QIP. On the one hand, utilizing the interaction between laser pulses and atomic ensembles we will experimentally investigate the potentials of atomic ensembles in the gas phase to build quantum repeaters for long-distance quantum communication, that is, to develop a new technological solution for quantum repeaters making use of the effective qubit-type entanglement of two cold atomic ensembles by a projective measurement of individual photons by spontaneous Raman processes.
On this basis, we will further investigate the advantages of cold atoms in an optical trap to enhance the coherence time of atomic qubits beyond the threshold for scalable realization of quantum repeaters. Moreover, building on our long experience in research on multi-photon entanglement, we also plan to perform a number of significant experiments in the field of QIP with particular emphasis on fault-tolerant quantum computation, photon-loss-tolerant quantum computation and cluster-state based quantum simulation.
Finally, by combining the techniques developed in the above quantum memory and multi-photon interference experiments, we will further experimentally investigate the possibility to achieve quantum teleportation between photonic and atomic qubits, quantum teleportation between remote atomic qubits and efficient entanglement generation via classical feed-forward.
The techniques that will be developed in the present project will lay the basis for future large scale. The techniques that will be developed in the present project will lay the basis for future large scale Max ERC Funding. Project acronym AttentionCircuits.
Project Modulation of neocortical microcircuits for attention. Summary At every moment in time, the brain receives a vast amount of sensory information about the environment. This makes attention, the process by which we select currently relevant stimuli for processing and ignore irrelevant input, a fundamentally important brain function.
Studies in primates have yielded a detailed description of how attention to a stimulus modifies the responses of neuronal ensembles in visual cortex, but how this modulation is produced mechanistically in the circuit is not well understood.
Neuronal circuits comprise a large variety of neuron types, and to gain mechanistic insights, and to treat specific diseases of the nervous system, it is crucial to characterize the contribution of different identified cell types to information processing. Inhibition supplied by a small yet highly diverse set of interneurons controls all aspects of cortical function, and the central hypothesis of this proposal is that differential modulation of genetically-defined interneuron types is a key mechanism of attention in visual cortex.
To identify the interneuron types underlying attentional modulation and to investigate how this, in turn, affects computations in the circuit we will use an innovative multidisciplinary approach combining genetic targeting in mice with cutting-edge in vivo 2-photon microscopy-based recordings and selective optogenetic manipulation of activity.
Importantly, a key set of experiments will test whether the observed neuronal mechanisms are causally involved in attention at the level of behavior, the ultimate readout of the computations we are interested in.
The expected results will provide a detailed, mechanistic dissection of the neuronal basis of attention. Beyond attention, selection of different functional states of the same hard-wired circuit by modulatory input is a fundamental, but poorly understood, phenomenon in the brain, and we predict that our insights will elucidate similar mechanisms in other brain areas and functional contexts.
Project Attosecond tracing of collective dynamics in clusters and nanoparticles. Summary Collective electron motion can unfold on attosecond time scales in nanoplasmonic systems, as defined by the inverse spectral bandwidth of the plasmonic resonant region. Similarly, in dielectrics or semiconductors, the laser-driven collective motion of electrons can occur on this characteristic time scale.
Until now, such collective electron dynamics has not been directly observed on its natural, attosecond timescale. In ATTOCO, the attosecond, sub-cycle dynamics of strong-field driven collective electron dynamics in clusters and nanoparticles will be explored. Moreover, we will explore field-dependent processes induced by strong laser fields in nanometer sized matter, such as the metallization of dielectrics, which has been recently proposed theoretically. In order to map the collective electron motion we will apply the attosecond nanoplasmonic streaking technique, which has been proposed and developed theoretically.
In this approach, the temporal resolution is achieved by limiting the emission of high energetic, direct photoelectrons to a sub-cycle time window using attosecond XUV pulses phase-locked to a driving few-cycle near-infrared field. Kinetic energy spectra of the photoelectrons recorded for different delays between the excitation field and the ionizing XUV pulse will allow extracting the spatio-temporal electron dynamics.
ATTOCO offers the capability to measure field-induced material changes in real-time and to gain novel insight into collective electron dynamics. In particular, we aim to learn from ATTOCO in detail, how the collective electron motion is established, how the collective motion is driven by the strong external field and over which pathways and timescale the collective motion decays. ATTOCO provides also a major step in the development of lightwave nano- electronics, which may push the frontiers of electronics from multi-gigahertz to petahertz frequencies.
If successfully accomplished, this development will herald the potential scalability of electron-based information technologies to lightwave frequencies, surpassing the speed of current computation and communication technology by many orders of magnitude. Project Attoelectronics: Steering electrons in atoms and molecules with synthesized waveforms of light. Researcher PI Eleftherios Goulielmakis.
Summary In order for electronics to meet the ever raising demands for higher speeds of operation, the dimensions of its basic elements drop continuously.
This miniaturization, that will soon meet the dimensions of a single molecule or an atom, calls for new approaches in electronics that take advantage, rather than confront the dominant at these scales quantum laws. Electronics on the scale of atoms and molecules require fields that are able to trigger and to steer electrons at speeds comparable to their intrinsic dynamics, determined by the quantum mechanical laws.
To meet this challenging goal, this project will utilize conceptual and technological advances of attosecond science as its primary tools. First, pulses of light, the fields of which can be sculpted and characterized with attosecond accuracy, for triggering as well as for terminating the ultrafast electron motion in an atom or a molecule. Second, attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet, which can probe and frame-freeze the created electron motion, with unprecedented resolution, and determine the direction and the magnitude of the created currents.
This project will interrogate the limits of the fastest electronic motion that light fields can trigger as well as terminate, a few hundreds of attoseconds later, in an atom or a molecule. In this way it aims to explore new routes of atomic and molecular scale electronic switching at PHz frequencies. Project The listening challenge: How ageing brains adapt.
Summary Humans in principle adapt well to sensory degradations. The auditory sensory modality poses an excellent, although under-utilised, research model to understand these adjustments, their neural basis, and their large variation amongst individuals.
Hearing abilities begin to decline already in the fourth life decade, and our guiding hypothesis is that individuals differ in the extent to which they are neurally, cognitively, and psychologically equipped to adapt to this sensory decline. We will employ advanced multi-modal neuroimaging EEG and fMRI markers and a flexible experimental design of listening challenges. Pursuing these aims will help establish a new theoretical framework for the adaptive ageing brain.
The project will further break new ground for future classification and treatment of hearing difficulties, and for developing individualised hearing solutions.
Researcher PI Martin Eilers. Summary There is an intense interest in the function of human Myc proteins that stems from their pervasive role in the genesis of human tumors. A large body of evidence has established that expression levels of one of three closely related Myc proteins are enhanced in the majority of all human tumors and that multiple tumor entities depend on elevated Myc function, arguing that targeting Myc will have significant therapeutic efficacy. This hope awaits clinical confirmation, since the strategies that are currently under investigation to target Myc function or expression have yet to enter the clinic.
Myc proteins are global regulators of transcription, but their mechanism of action is poorly understood. In contrast, they are stabilized in tumor cells. Work by us and by others has shown that stabilization of Myc is required for tumorigenesis and has identified strategies to destabilize Myc for tumor therapy. This work has also led to the surprising observation that the N-Myc protein, which drives neuroendocrine tumorigenesis, is stabilized by association with the Aurora-A kinase and that clinically available Aurora-A inhibitors can dissociate the complex and destabilize N-Myc.
Aurora-A has not previously been implicated in transcription, prompting us to use protein crystallography, proteomics and shRNA screening to understand its interaction with N-Myc. We have now identified a novel protein complex of N-Myc and Aurora-A that provides an unexpected and potentially groundbreaking insight into Myc function. Collectively, both findings open new strategies to target Myc function for tumor therapy.
Project Authoritarianism2. Researcher PI Daniela Stockmann. Summary I suggest that perceptions of diversity and disagreement voiced in the on-line political discussion may play a key role in mobilizing citizens to voice their views and take action in authoritarian regimes.
The empirical focus is the Chinese Internet. Subjective perceptions of group discussion among participants can significantly differ from the objective content of the discussion. These perceptions can have an independent effect on political engagement. Novel is also that I will study which technological settings blogs, Weibo Twitter , public hearings, etc facilitate these perceptions. I will address these novel issues by specifying the conditions and causal mechanisms that facilitate the rise of online public opinion.
As an expansion to prior work, I will study passive in addition to active participants in online discussion. This is of particular interest because passive participants outnumber active participants. My overall aim is to deepen our knowledge of how participants experience online political discussion in stabilizing or destabilizing authoritarian rule.
To this end, I propose to work with one post-doc and two PhD research assistants on four objectives: Objective 1 is to explore what kinds of people engage in online discussions and differences between active and passive participants. Objective 2 is to understand how the technological settings that create the conditions for online discussion differ from each other. Objective 3 is to assess how active and passive participants see the diversity and disagreement in the discussion in these settings.
Objective 4 is to assess whether citizens take action upon online political discussion depending on how they see it. I will produce the first nationally representative survey on the experiences of participants in online political discussion in China. In addition to academics, this knowledge is of interest to policy-makers, professionals, and journalists aiming to understand authoritarian politics and media.
In addition to academics, this knowledge is of interest to policy-makers, professionals, and journalists aiming to understand authoritarian politics and media Max ERC Funding. Researcher PI Dieter Braun. Summary How can we create molecular life in the lab? We will trigger basic forms of autonomous Darwinian evolution by implementing replication, mutation and selection on the molecular level in a single micro-chamber?
We will explore protein-free replication schemes to tackle the Eigen-Paradox of replication and translation under archaic nonequilibrium settings.
The conditions mimic thermal gradients in porous rock near hydrothermal vents on the early earth. We are in a unique position to pursue these questions due to our previous inventions of convective replication, optothermal molecule traps and light driven microfluidics.
Four interconnected strategies are pursued ranging from basic replication using tRNA-like hairpins, entropic cooling or UV degradation down to protein-based DNA evolution in a trap, all with biotechnological applications. The approach is risky, however very interesting physics and biology on the way.
We will: i Replicate DNA with continuous, convective PCR in the selection of a thermal molecule trap ii Replicate sequences with metastable, tRNA-like hairpins exponentially iii Build DNA complexes by structure-selective trapping to replicate by entropic decay iv Drive replication by Laser-based UV degradation Both replication and trapping are exponential processes, yielding in combination a highly nonlinear dynamics.
We proceed along publishable steps and implement highly efficient modes of continuous molecular evolution. As shown in the past, we will create biotechnological applications from basic scientific questions see our NanoTemper Startup. The starting grant will allow us to compete with Jack Szostak who very recently picked up our approach [JACS , ].
Project acronym AutoClean. Project Cell-free reconstitution of autophagy to dissect molecular mechanisms. Summary Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway in which the cell digests its own components, is an essential biological pathway that promotes organismal health and longevity and helps combat cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
Accordingly, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for research in autophagy. Although autophagy has been extensively studied from yeast to mammals, the molecular events that underlie its induction and progression remain elusive. A highly conserved protein kinase, Atg1, plays a unique and essential role in initiating autophagy, yet despite this pivotal importance it has taken over twenty years for its first downstream target to be discovered.
However, whilst our identification of the autophagy related membrane protein Atg9 as the first Atg1 substrate is an important advance, the molecular mechanisms that enable the extensive remodelling of cellular membranes that occurs during autophagy is still completely undefined. A detailed knowledge of the inputs and outputs of the Atg1 kinase will enable us to provide a definitive mechanistic understanding of autophagy. We have devised a novel permeabilized cell assay that reconstitutes the pathway in vitro, allowing us to recapitulate key steps in the autophagic process and thereby determine how the individual steps that lead up to autophagy are controlled.
We will use this system to dissect the functional role of Atg1 kinase in autophagosome-vacuole fusion Objective 1 , and to determine the origin of the autophagic membrane and the role of Atg1 in expanding these Objective 2. By focusing on the activation of the Atg1 kinase and the molecular events that it executes, we will be able to explain its central role in regulating the autophagic process and define the mechanistic steps in the pathway. Project acronym AutoCPS. Summary Embedded Control software plays a critical role in many safety-critical applications.
For instance, modern vehicles use interacting software and hardware components to control steering and braking.
Control software forms the main core of autonomous transportation, power networks, and aerospace. These applications are examples of cyber-physical systems CPS , where distributed software systems interact tightly with spatially distributed physical systems with complex dynamics. CPS are becoming ubiquitous due to rapid advances in computation, communication, and memory.
However, the development of core control software running in these systems is still ad hoc and error-prone and much of the engineering costs today go into ensuring that control software works correctly.
In order to reduce the design costs and guaranteeing its correctness, I aim to develop an innovative design process, in which the embedded control software is synthesized from high-level correctness requirements in a push-button and formal manner.
Requirements for modern CPS applications go beyond conventional properties in control theory e. Here, I propose a compositional methodology for automated synthesis of control software by combining compositional techniques from computer science e.
I will leverage decomposition and abstraction as two key tools to tackle the design complexity, by either breaking the design object into semi-independent parts or by aggregating components and eliminating unnecessary details. My project is high-risk because it requires a fundamental re-thinking of design techniques till now studied in separate disciplines.
It is high-gain because a successful method for automated synthesis of control software will make it finally possible to develop complex yet reliable CPS applications while considerably reducing the engineering cost. Project acronym AutoEngineering. Researcher PI Kathrin de la Rosa. Summary The AutoEngineering project aims to develop an innovative strategy for B cell engineering by exploiting natural DNA breaks to generate antibodies that surpass common reactivity profiles.
The project is based on our surprising finding that in B cells endogenous AID activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity can lead to the insertion of a pathogen receptor resulting in broadly reactive antibodies. To unravel this new mechanism of diversification, my laboratory established and developed new methodologies to identify insert-containing antibodies in genomic DNA, mRNA, proteins and cells.
We found that insertions in antibody transcripts derive from distant genes, occur across individuals and are inducible in vitro, and we have preliminary evidence that in vitro activation of AID enables integration of a nucleofected DNA substrate. Avoiding exogenous nucleases, this project aims at developing efficient and safe engineering of B cells to produce antibodies by design. Aim 1. By screening for genomic insertions in antibody genes of healthy donors, DNA-repair deficient patients, and manipulated in vitro B cell cultures, we will gain insights into the mechanism of insertion and define biomarkers of DNA repair.
Aim 2. The knowledge gained will be used to optimize substrate design and insert integration, while minimizing the potential for off-target integration. We will also explore the possibility to guide AID to target sites using RNAs, and design substrates that allow efficient splicing of an inserted exon. Aim 3. To gain breadth on pathogen recognition and to circumvent the limitation of the heterodimeric antibody binding site, we will use the above approach to engineer B cells to produce antibodies containing receptors for HIV CD4 and HCV CD Insertion of slim receptor-domains with precise targeting of crucial sites may generate B cells with exceptional potency to reduce the risk for escape mutants, thereby paving a way for artificial immunity.
Researcher PI Peter Seeberger. Summary While heparin, a glacosaminoglycan GAG has served as an anticoagulant for more than 60 years, the structure-activity relationship of heparin and chondroitin sulfate for specific interactions with proteins are still poorly understood.
It has become evident that defined lengths and sequences or patterns are responsible for binding to a particular protein and modulating its biological activity.
Determination of the structure-activity relationships of heparins and chondroitins creates an opportunity to modulate processes underlying viral entry, angiogenesis, kidney diseases and diseases of the central nervous system.
The isolation of pure GAGs is extremely tedious and chemical synthesis is often the only means to access defined oligosaccharides. Several are identical to head -up display HUD issues: symbol standardization, excessive clutter, and the need for integration with other cockpit displays and controls.
Other issues are unique to the head-mounted display : symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and field-of-view FOV vs. Symbol stabilization is critical. In the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth NOE flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible.
The underlying cause is the absence of design criteria for HMDs. The existing military standard does not reflect the current state of technology. In addition, there are inadequate test and evaluation guidelines. The situation parallels the situation for HUDs several years ago. Preliminary study of ergonomic behavior during simulated ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia using a head-mounted display. A head-mounted display provides continuous real-time imaging within the practitioner's visual field.
We evaluated the feasibility of using head-mounted display technology to improve ergonomics in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in a simulated environment. Two anesthesiologists performed an equal number of ultrasound-guided popliteal-sciatic nerve blocks using the head-mounted display on a porcine hindquarter, and an independent observer assessed each practitioner's ergonomics eg, head turning, arching, eye movements, and needle manipulation and the overall block quality based on the injectate spread around the target nerve for each procedure.
Both practitioners performed their procedures without directly viewing the ultrasound monitor, and neither practitioner showed poor ergonomic behavior. Head-mounted display technology may offer potential advantages during ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Immersive virtual walk-through development for tokamak using active head mounted display.
A fully immersive virtual walk-through of the SST-1 tokamak has been developed. The virtual walkthrough renders the virtual model of SST-1 tokamak through a active stereoscopic head mounted display to visualize the virtual environment. All locations inside and outside of the reactor can be accessed and reviewed. Such a virtual walkthrough provides a scale visualization of all components of the tokamak.
To achieve such a virtual model, the graphical details of the tokamak CAD model are enhanced. The graphical enhancements also include the redefinition of the facets to optimize the surface triangles to remove lags in display during visual rendering.
Two separate algorithms are developed to interact with the virtual model. A fly-by algorithm, developed using C , uses inputs from a commercial joystick to navigate within the virtual environment.
The second algorithm uses the IR and gyroscopic tracking system of the head mounted display to render view as per the current pose of the user within the virtual environment and the direction of view. Such a virtual walk-thorough can be used extensively for design review and integration, review of new components, operator training for remote handling, operations, upgrades of tokamak, etc.
Hybrid diffractive-refractive optical system design of head-mounted display for augmented reality. An optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality is designed in this paper. Considering the factors, such as the optical performance, the utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world, the feelings of users when he wears it and etc.
With the characteristics of the particular negative dispersive and the power of realizing random-phase modulation, the diffractive surface is helpful for optical system of reducing weight, simplifying structure and etc. The angular resolution of display is 0. The diameter of this system is less than 46mm, and it applies the binocular. This diffractive-refractive optical system of see-through head-mounted display not only satisfies the demands of user"s factors in structure, but also with high resolution, very small chromatic aberration and distortion, and satisfies the need of augmented reality.
In the end, the parameters of the diffractive surface are discussed. Registration of an on-axis see-through head-mounted display and camera system. An optical see-through head-mounted display HMD system integrating a miniature camera that is aligned with the user's pupil is developed and tested. Such an HMD system has a potential value in many augmented reality applications, in which registration of the virtual display to the real scene is one of the critical aspects.
The camera alignment to the user's pupil results in a simple yet accurate calibration and a low registration error across a wide range of depth. In reality, a small camera-eye misalignment may still occur in such a system due to the inevitable variations of HMD wearing position with respect to the eye. The effects of such errors are measured.
Calculation further shows that the registration error as a function of viewing distance behaves nearly the same for different virtual image distances, except for a shift. The impact of prismatic effect of the display lens on registration is also discussed. Google Glass Glare: disability glare produced by a head-mounted visual display. Head mounted displays are a type of wearable technology - a market that is projected to expand rapidly over the coming years. Probably the most well known example is the device Google Glass or 'Glass'.
Here we investigate the extent to which the device display can interfere with normal visual function by producing monocular disability glare.
Contrast sensitivity was measured in two normally sighted participants, 32 and 52 years of age. Data were recorded for the right eye, the left eye and then again in a binocular condition. Measurements were taken both with and without the Glass in place, across a range of stimulus luminance levels using a two-alternative forced-choice methodology.
The level of disability glare increased as stimulus luminance was reduced in a manner consistent with intraocular light scatter, resulting in a veiling retinal illuminance. Sensitivity in the left eye was unaffected. A significant reduction in binocular contrast sensitivity occurred at lower luminance levels due to a loss of binocular summation, although binocular sensitivity was not found to fall below the sensitivity of the better monocular level binocular inhibition.
Head mounted displays such as Google Glass have the potential to cause significant disability glare in the eye exposed to the visual display , particularly under conditions of low luminance. They can also cause a more modest binocular reduction in sensitivity by eliminating the benefits of binocular summation. A novel approach to patient self-monitoring of sonographic examinations using a head-mounted display.
Patients' use of a head-mounted display during their sonographic examinations could provide them with information about their diseases in real time and might help improve "patient-centered care. In November and December , 58 patients were enrolled.
Patients wore a head-mounted display HMZ-T2; Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan during their sonographic examinations and watched their own images in real time. After the sonographic examinations, the patients completed a questionnaire, in which they evaluated the utility of the head-mounted display , their understanding of their diseases, their satisfaction with using the head-mounted display , and any adverse events. Until November 26, , patients' names were requested on the questionnaire; after that date, the questionnaire was changed to be anonymous.
There was no significant association between questionnaire results and patient characteristics. None of the questionnaire results changed significantly after the questionnaire was made anonymous. The use of a modern head-mounted display by patients during sonographic examinations provided good image quality with acceptable wearability. It could deepen their understanding of their diseases and help develop patient-centered care.
The difference in accommodation and convergence distance experienced when viewing stereoscopic displays has long been recognized as a source of visual discomfort. It is especially problematic in head mounted virtual reality and enhanced reality displays , where images must often be displayed across a large depth range or superimposed on real objects.
DTI has demonstrated a novel method of creating stereoscopic images in which the focus and fixation distances are closely matched for all parts of the scene from close distances to infinity.
The method is passive in the sense that it does not rely on eye tracking, moving parts, variable focus optics, vibrating optics, or feedback loops. The method uses a rapidly changing illumination pattern in combination with a high speed microdisplay to create cones of light that converge at different distances to form the voxels of a high resolution space filling image. A bench model display was built and a series of visual tests were performed in order to demonstrate the concept and investigate both its capabilities and limitations.
Results proved conclusively that real optical images were being formed and that observers had to change their focus to read text or see objects at different distances. Optical gesture sensing and depth mapping technologies for head-mounted displays : an overview. Head Mounted Displays HMDs , and especially see-through HMDs have gained renewed interest in recent time, and for the first time outside the traditional military and defense realm, due to several high profile consumer electronics companies presenting their products to hit market.
Consumer electronics HMDs have quite different requirements and constrains as their military counterparts. Voice comments are the de-facto interface for such devices, but when the voice recognition does not work not connection to the cloud for example , trackpad and gesture sensing technologies have to be used to communicate information to the device. We review in this paper the various technologies developed today integrating optical gesture sensing in a small footprint, as well as the various related 3d depth mapping sensors.
Optical methods for enabling focus cues in head-mounted displays for virtual and augmented reality. Developing head-mounted displays HMD that offer uncompromised optical pathways to both digital and physical worlds without encumbrance and discomfort confronts many grand challenges, both from technological perspectives and human factors.
Among the many challenges, minimizing visual discomfort is one of the key obstacles. One of the key contributing factors to visual discomfort is the lack of the ability to render proper focus cues in HMDs to stimulate natural eye accommodation responses, which leads to the well-known accommodation-convergence cue discrepancy problem.
In this paper, I will provide a summary on the various optical methods approaches toward enabling focus cues in HMDs for both virtual reality VR and augmented reality AR. For more than a year now we have been developing techniques for using Head-Mounted Displays HMD to help accommodate a deaf audience in a planetarium environment.
Our target audience is primarily children from 8 to 13 years of age, but the methodologies can be used for a wide variety of audiences. Applications also extend beyond the planetarium environment. From those early results we are now at the point of testing for comprehension improvement on a number of astronomical subjects. We will present a number of these early results.
A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training. In the light of substantial improvements to the quality and availability of virtual reality VR hardware seen since , this review seeks to update our knowledge about the use of head-mounted displays HMDs in education and training. Following a comprehensive search 21 documents reporting The quality assessment shows that the study quality was below average according to the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument, especially for the studies that were designed as user evaluations of educational VR products Outside of these situations the HMDs had no advantage when compared to less immersive technologies or traditional instruction and in some cases even proved counterproductive because of widespread Full Text Available Conventionally, the camera localization for augmented reality AR relies on detecting a known pattern within the captured images.
The proposed markerless AR scheme can be utilized for medical applications such as training, telementoring, or preoperative explanation. Our AR camera localization method is shown to be better than the traditional marker-based and sensor-based AR environment.
The demonstration system was evaluated with a plastic dummy head and the display result is satisfactory for a multiple-view observation. Head-mounted display for use in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Since the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery FESS , the procedure has undergone rapid change with evolution keeping pace with technological advances.
Video-based FESS has allowed for documentation of the surgical procedure as well as interactive instruction during surgery. Presently, the technical requirements of video-based FESS include the addition of one or more television monitors positioned strategically in the operating room. Thought video monitors have greatly enhanced surgical endoscopy by re- involving nurses and assistants in the actual mechanics of surgery, video monitors require the operating surgeon to be focused on the screen instead of the patient.
The same surgeon performed the operation in each patient. In one nasal fossa, surgery was performed using conventional video FESS methods. The contralateral side was operated on while wearing the head mounted video display. The device had adequate resolution for the purposes of FESS. No adverse effects were noted intraoperatively.
The results on the patients ipsalateral and contralateral sides were similar. The visor did eliminated significant torsion of the surgeon's neck during the operation, while at the same time permitted simultaneous viewing of both the patient and the intranasal surgical field.
Full Text Available In this paper, a photosensor-based latency measurement system for head-mounted displays HMDs is proposed. The motion-to-photon latency is the greatest reason for motion sickness and dizziness felt by users when wearing an HMD system. Therefore, a measurement system is required to accurately measure and analyze the latency to reduce these problems. The existing measurement system does not consider the actual physical movement in humans, and its accuracy is also very low.
However, the proposed system considers the physical head movement and is highly accurate. Specifically, it consists of a head position model-based rotary platform, pixel luminance change detector, and signal analysis and calculation modules. Using these modules, the proposed system can exactly measure the latency, which is the time difference between the physical movement for a user and the luminance change of an output image.
In the experiment using a commercial HMD, the latency was measured to be up to In addition, the measured latency increased up to Optical see-through head-mounted display with occlusion capability. Lack of mutual occlusion capability between computer-rendered and real objects is one of fundamental problems for most existing optical see-through head-mounted displays OST-HMD. Without the proper occlusion management, the virtual view through an OST-HMD appears "ghost-like", floating in the real world.
To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative optical scheme that uniquely combines the eyepiece and see-through relay optics to achieve an occlusion-capable OST-HMD system with a very compelling form factor and high optical performances. The proposed display technology was capable of working in both indoor and outdoor environments. Our current design offered a x color resolution based on 0.
The design achieved a diagonal FOV of 40 degrees, The optics weights about 20 grams per eye. Our proposed occlusion capable OST-HMD system can easily find myriads of applications in various military and commercial sectors such as military training, gaming and entertainment. A low-cost multimodal head-mounted display system for neuroendoscopic surgery. With rapid advances in technology, wearable devices as head-mounted display HMD have been adopted for various uses in medical science, ranging from simply aiding in fitness to assisting surgery.
We aimed to investigate the feasibility and practicability of a low-cost multimodal HMD system in neuroendoscopic surgery. A multimodal HMD system, mainly consisted of a HMD with two built-in displays , an action camera, and a laptop computer displaying reconstructed medical images, was developed to assist neuroendoscopic surgery. With this intensively integrated system, the neurosurgeon could freely switch between endoscopic image, three-dimensional 3D reconstructed virtual endoscopy images, and surrounding environment images.
Using a leap motion controller, the neurosurgeon could adjust or rotate the 3D virtual endoscopic images at a distance to better understand the positional relation between lesions and normal tissues at will. A total of 21 consecutive patients with ventricular system diseases underwent neuroendoscopic surgery with the aid of this system. All operations were accomplished successfully, and no system-related complications occurred.
The HMD was comfortable to wear and easy to operate. Screen resolution of the HMD was high enough for the neurosurgeon to operate carefully.
With the system, the neurosurgeon might get a better comprehension on lesions by freely switching among images of different modalities. The system had a steep learning curve, which meant a quick increment of skill with it. Compared with commercially available surgical assistant instruments, this system was relatively low-cost.
The multimodal HMD system is feasible, practical, helpful, and relatively cost efficient in neuroendoscopic surgery. This poster details a study investigating the effect of Head Mounted Display HMD weight and locomotion method Walking-In-Place and treadmill walking on the perceived naturalness of virtual walking speeds. The results revealed significant main effects of movement type, but no significant effec Virtual reality exposure treatment of agoraphobia: a comparison of computer automatic virtual environment and head-mounted display.
In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy VRET were investigated in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Results indicate. A traditional accommodation for the deaf or hard-of-hearing in a planetarium show is some type of captioning system or a signer on the floor.
Both of these have significant drawbacks given the nature of a planetarium show. Young audience members who are deaf likely don't have the reading skills needed to make a captioning system effective. A signer on the floor requires light which can then splash onto the dome. Our preliminary test used a canned planetarium show with a pre-recorded sound track.
Since many astronomical objects don't have official ASL signs, the signer had to use classifiers to describe the different objects. Since these are not official signs, these classifiers provided a way to test to see if students were picking up the information using the HMD. We will present results that demonstrate that the use of HMDs is at least as effective as projecting a signer on the dome.
This also showed that the HMD could provide the necessary accommodation for students for whom captioning was ineffective.
We will also discuss the current effort to provide a live signer without the light splash effect and our early results on teaching effectiveness with HMDs. The effect of viewing a virtual environment through a head-mounted display on balance. In the next few years, several head-mounted displays HMD will be publicly released making virtual reality more accessible.
HMD are expected to be widely popular at home for gaming but also in clinical settings, notably for training and rehabilitation. HMD can be used in both seated and standing positions; however, presently, the impact of HMD on balance remains largely unknown.
It is therefore crucial to examine the impact of viewing a virtual environment through a HMD on standing balance. To compare static and dynamic balance in a virtual environment perceived through a HMD and the physical environment. The visual representation of the virtual environment was based on filmed image of the physical environment and was therefore highly similar. This is an observational study in healthy adults.
No significant difference was observed between the two environments for static balance. However, dynamic balance was more perturbed in the virtual environment when compared to that of the physical environment.
HMD should be used with caution because of its detrimental impact on dynamic balance. Sensorimotor conflict possibly explains the impact of HMD on balance. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time. Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation.
The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions.
In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display Oculus Rift , simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software Parrot Coaster and Helix. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea.
Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology. Amblyopia treatment of adults with dichoptic training using the virtual reality oculus rift head mounted display : preliminary results.
Background The gold standard treatments in amblyopia are penalizing therapies, such as patching or blurring vision with atropine that are aimed at forcing the use of the amblyopic eye.
However, in the last years, new therapies are being developed and validated, such as dichoptic visual training, aimed at stimulating the amblyopic eye and eliminating the interocular supression. Purpose To evaluate the effect of dichoptic visual training using a virtual reality head mounted display in a sample Dahlquist, Lynnda M. Pain threshold elapsed time until the child reported pain and pain tolerance total time the child kept the hand submer Usability Comparisons of Head-Mounted vs.
Researchers have shown that immersive Virtual Reality VR can serve as an unusually powerful pain control technique. However, research assessing the reported symptoms and negative effects of VR systems indicate that it is important to ascertain if these symptoms arise from the use of particular VR display devices, particularly for users who are deemed "at risk," such as chronic pain patients Moreover, these patients have specific and often complex needs and requirements, and because basic issues such as 'comfort' may trigger anxiety or panic attacks, it is important to examine basic questions of the feasibility of using VR displays.
The characteristics of these immersive desktop displays differ: one is worn, enabling patients to move their heads , while the other is peered into, allowing less head movement. To assess the severity of physical discomforts, 20 chronic pain patients tried both displays while watching a VR pain management demo in clinical settings. However, results also indicated other preferences of the two VR displays among patients, including physical comfort levels and a sense of immersion.
Few studies have been conducted that compare usability of specific VR devices specifically with chronic pain patients using a therapeutic virtual environment in pain clinics. A proposal of analog correlated multiple sampling with high density capacitors for low noise CMOS image sensors Shunta Kamoshita. Simulating anisoplanatic turbulence by sampling inter-modal and spatially correlated Zernike coefficients Nicholas Chimitt.
Recovering atmospheric image motion in the extreme faint limit Michael Hart. Under display camera Quad Bayer raw image restoration using deep learning Irina Kim. Long range tracking with computational 2. Under display camera image recovery through diffraction compensation Jeongguk Lee. Deep quality evaluator guided by 3D saliency for stereoscopic images Oussama Messai. Programmable liquid crystal apertures and filters for photographic lenses Henry Dietz.
Application scenarios and usability for modern conference rooms with degree video projection Reiner Creutzburg. Controllable medical image generation via generative adversarial networks Zhihang Ren. Validation of image systems simulation technology using a Cornell box Zheng Lyu. Development of portable and fully automated high-resolution 3D imaging device for forensic applications Song Zhang.
Creating, weaponizing, and detecting deep fakes Invited Hany Farid. Why a clear coating modifies halftone color prints Mathieu Hebert. Semantic 3D indoor reconstruction with stereo-camera imaging Xin Liu. Optical design and manufacturability of imaging lenses for high resolution sensors Invited Gregory Hollows.
Objective evaluation of relighting models on translucent materials from multispectral RTI images Vlado Kitanovski. Task evoked pupillary response for surgical task difficulty prediction via multitask learning Wencheng Wu.
Verification and regularization method for 3D-human body pose estimation based on prior knowledge Christian Jauch. Generating a hand pose dataset for vision based manual assembly assistance systems Christian Jauch. Firmware vulnerability analysis of widely used low-budget TP-link routers Franziska Schwarz. Artificial intelligence for appearance design and fabrication Invited Vahid Babaei.
Improving detection of manipulated passport photos - Training course for border control inspectors to detect morphed facial passport photos Franziska Schwarz. Surface roughness estimation using structured light projection Marjan Shahpaski.
Single-shot 3D holographic particle localization using deep priors trained on simulated data Waleed Tahir. Experiments on active imaging through fog Samuel Thurman. Delivering object-based immersive video experiences Basel Salahieh. Data collection through translation network based on end-to-end deep learning for autonomous driving Zelin Zhang. Revealing subcellular structures with live-cell and 3D fluorescence nanoscopy Fang Huang.
Micro-expression recognition with noisy labels Tuomas Varanka. Data versus physical models in computational optical imaging Demetri Psaltis. Impact of virtual reality head mounted display on the attentional visual field Vasilii Marshev. Quantitative study of vehicle-pedestrian interactions: Towards pedestrian-adapted lighting communication functions for autonomous vehicles Guoqin Zang.
Deep learning and image restoration: A match made in heaven or hell? JPI-pending: Psychophysical study of human visual perception of flicker artifacts in automotive digital mirror replacement systems Nicolai Behmann. End-to-end imaging system optimization for computer vision in driving automation Korbinian Weikl. Self-supervised deep learning for ptychography without reference data Selin Aslan. Cerebellum vs. Interdisciplinary immersive experiences within artistic research, social and cognitive sciences Adnan Hadzi.
Neurocomputational model explains spatial variations in perceived lightness induced by luminance edges in the image Michael Rudd. Imaging through deep turbulence using digital holography experiments Mark Spencer. The effect of display brightness and viewing distance: A dataset for visually lossless image compression Aliaksei Mikhailiuk. Robustness of Fourier ptychographic imaging to variation of system parameters Moritz Siegel.
Predicting VR discomfort Vasilii Marshev. Color threshold functions: Application of contrast sensitivity functions in standard and high dynamic range color spaces Minjung Kim. Modeling brain structure and organization across many spatial scales Eva Dyer. JPI-first: The difference in impression between genuine and artificial leather: Quantifying the feeling of authenticity Shuhei Watanabe.
Stability analysis of data and image domain learning-based reconstruction approaches Muhammad Usman Ghani. Prediction of individual preference for movie poster designs based on graphic elements using machine learning classification Hyeon-Jeong Suk.
Unify the view of camera mesh network to a common coordinate system Haney Williams. Data driven degradation of automotive sensors and effect analysis Sven Fleck. Plug-and-play and equilibrium methods demystified Gregery Buzzard. One size fits all: Can we train one denoiser for all noise levels? Abhiram Gnanasambandam. Model-based Bayesian deep learning architecture for linear inverse problems in computational imaging Canberk Ekmekci.
Using images of noise to visualize image processing behavior Norman Koren. An analytic-numerical image flicker study to test novel flicker metrics Invited Brian Deegan. Deep probabilistic imaging: Uncertainty quantification and multi-modal solution characterization for computational imaging He Sun. Finnema et al Agonist radioligands may target specifically the G protein-coupled state of the receptors and thereby provide a more meaningful assessment of available receptors than antagonist radioligands.
In the current study we characterized 11C-raclopride and 11C-Cimbi receptor binding in the mouse brain. On the same experimental day, two PET measurements were conducted in each animal.
A minute 11C-raclopride or minute 11C-Cimbi PET measurement was initiated immediately upon intravenous injection of the radioligand. The two systems have identical PET performance and were calibrated to provide consistent results. Genotypes were divided equally betweent the two systems. The preliminary results show that Slc10a4 KO mice show a higher binding potential of 11C-raclopride compared to WT animals.
We now continue to further examine possilbe differences in the dopmaminergic system in Slc10a4 KO mice compared to WT mice. We will investigate the responsiveness of the dopamine system by adminster amphetamine before [11C]raclopride imaging.
We plan to study the impact of the new tools in two major diseases: schizophrenia and severe depression. As it will be described below, it was validated with multiple phantoms after the installation. Age-associated neurodegenerative disorders are accompanied by brain atrophy and vascular lesions, which substantially complicates accurate PET measurements and thus challenge the MindView system under the construction.
Preparatory activities - radiochemistry Following the successful development of novel radiolabeling of radiopharmaceuticals see tasks 6. This core of the radiochemistry work was the development and testing of platforms at KI for labeling of radiotracers with 11CO and 11CH3I. Thereby continuing the work of Rahman et al 1. The work included supporting and monitoring 4. As outlined in the original proposal an examination by a research physician included psychiatric interview SCID , medical and psychiatric history, physical examination, blood and urine sampling and MRI examination of the brain.
Patients age years, satisfied criteria for Schizophrenia according to DSM Patients previously treated with antipsychotic drugs, with drug abuse or significant neurological or other somatic disorder were excluded. There was a significant reduction of 11C-PBR28 binding in patients compared to healthy controls in gray matter GM as well as in secondary regions. Tests with the PET insert. The Mindview system is integrated by a PET insert enclosing a two-channel radiofrequency head coil.
The integrated system lays on the bed of the Siemens Biograph mMR at the height of where the patient head is usually located. The Mindview system is connected to a cabinet at the back of the room, containing the acquisition electronics, through a shielded cable. The cabinet is connected to an isolated power socket in the Siemens mMR room, connecting the ground of the Faraday cage, the Siemens mMR scanner and the Mindview system, thus avoiding differences of potential between the systems.
The PET system consists of 20 PET detectors with temperature sensors and a cooling system, based on circulating air extracted from the Siemens mMR room that keeps the detectors at a stable temperature of Scans as long as 7 hours have been acquired while the temperature was monitored, not observing any visible variation in the temperature of the detectors. The RF coil has an inner diameter of mm and outer diameter of mm, matching the inner diameter of the PET insert. The material of the cover is fiber glass, providing mechanical strength and electrical safety.
The RF coil contains watchdogs that limit the maximum power of the amplifiers, avoiding possible heatup in the electronics. Figure 1 shows the Mindview PET insert with the cabinet and the radiofrequency coil that used for reception. Electrical safety tests following the IEC , developed for medical electrical equipment, have been performed in the PET insert and the RF coil, passing both systems all the tests.
Imaging procedures According to an established clinical protocol, subjects are to be injected with a 5 mCi 18F-FDG PET at rest, after fasting for at least 6 h before scanning. Image acquisition is started 30 min post-injection. Study subjects are not exposed to any additional radiation due to the imaging with the MindView system. The MindView system is described above.
The construction allows a simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR signal from the same body volume, thus enabling to simplify logistics and save time. The camera consists of a high-end 3T MRI scanner technically corresponding to the Siemens Verio system that harbors a fully functional state-of-the-art avalanche photodiode-based PET system within its gantry.
The PET scanner has a spatial resolution of 4. It has been successfully functioning in our Department since Our work can be arbitarily subdivided into three consecutive parts: phantom measurements, first human measurement, and a prospective study in a patient population.
The subject was studied twice, using the mMR and, right afterwards, the MindView system. Image acquisition was perfomed at 30 to 45 min p. An effect of the partial volume correction based on simultaneously acquired T1 MRI images was estimated. Motion correction and isochronous acquisition is yet to be implemented.
Prospective study in a patient population As soon as the preliminary data as reported above were available, we initiated a clinical study in patients with a suspected neurodegenerative disoder. Due to the lack of time we focused on this clinical population insted of patients with schizophrenia, who are much more difficult to recruite.
Still we are convinced that the patients with neurodegenerative disoders represent an meaningul target population for evaluation of the MindView system. Specifically, our analyses will focus on structures of the basal forebrain that include small to very small regions such as nucleus accumbens, nucleus basalis, substantia innominata, and the medial septal nucleus. So far, due to its small size these structures could not be reliably measured with PET.
The study protocol in English as well as patient information in German are included in the corresponding deliverable. The study was preliminary approved by the local ethics committee. A revised version of the study proposal is currently under review by the ethics committee.
The final approval should be available next week. Afterwards, we will start scanning. Potential Impact: Regarding strategic impacts, MINDView will be a real breakthrough in terms of new tools for imaging that will allow the definition of parameters allowing patient stratification in schizophrenia and depression diseases.
NOR is a leader in the development of RF coils for dedicated organs. Both companies will benefit directly from this project. The project represents an opportunity for BEN and SSL to enter the promising medical market and will thus represent a direct opportunity of development for them.
Concerning clinical impacts, the significance of this project is substantial. The cost to society is substantial. A three-year study covering 30 European countries - the 27 European Union member states plus Switzerland, Iceland and Norway - and a population of million people, looking at about illnesses covering all major brain disorders including depression and schizophrenia, concluded that Europeans are plagued by mental and neurological illnesses, with almost million people or 38 percent of the population suffering each year from a brain disorder.
Mental disorders are on the rise in the EU. Depression is already the most prevalent health problem in many EU-Member States. With only about a third of cases receiving the therapy or medication needed, mental illnesses cause a huge economic and social burden -- measured in the hundreds of billions of euros -- as sufferers become too unwell to work and personal relationships break down.
Those few receiving treatment do so with considerable delays of an average of several years and rarely with the appropriate, state-of-the-art therapies. Mental disorders have become Europe's largest health challenge of the 21st century. Mental illnesses are a major cause of death, disability, and economic burden worldwide and the World Health Organization predicts that by , depression will be the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease across all ages. Suicide remains a major cause of death.
Eight Member States are amongst the 15 countries with the highest male suicide rates in the world. Mental disorders and suicide cause immense suffering for individuals, families and communities, and mental disorders are major cause of disability. They put pressure on health, educational, economic, labor market and social welfare systems across the EU.
MINDView will allow a better understanding of neurobiology, including the role of specific neurotransmitters within the brain circuitry and their interrelations. The abovedescribed technology will enable simultaneous dynamic PET and MR acquisition following specific activation paradigms using specific tracer combinations. We can envisage several completely new and never before performed applications, which represent generic areas that can be investigated if high resolution PET and MR data can be acquired simultaneously.
The new technology to be developed during the project will open new venues. By the novel concept of simultaneous, high resolution PET-MR imaging, we are able to integrate both anatomical alterations MR , connectivity Diffusion Tensor Imaging , neuronal signalling fMRI , neurochemistry receptor ligand PET and Magnetic resonance spectroscopy , and neurotransmitter release dynamical PET imaging in perturbation paradigms , in the same patient.
Collectively, the combination between PET and fMRI with an increased resolution will profoundly change our view on how brain circuitry underlies behavior. The gains and advantages of combining the noninvasive imaging modalities PET and MR to allow for the simultaneous measurement of both imaging signals, is expected to have significant impact on prediction, diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of schizophrenia disease.
OCV is currently entering the organ dedicated imaging market through a PET mammography system that is currently being validated clinically. Finally, for SensL will be a unique opportunity to enter the medical market segment, which has high revenue potential, and to take lead positions through the combination of their technologies.
Beyond the direct recruitment of more than 30 researchers in the course of this project and the economical impact of the 4 MINDView SMEs partners, as well as their suppliers, this project has also indirectly contributed to employment through the development of high level technology. If we see the European efforts, there has not been research teams in Europe, capable of conducting a research project including such a wide range of techniques, knowledge and facilities. Furthermore, such an undertaking would be impossible in a single European country and with only National funding, since it requires the best European experts to accomplish the objectives of the project within the execution timeframe stipulated by the FP7 Health call.
This is also the only way to produce an impact in the European health care system for the benefits of the schizophrenia and depression patients. MINDView capitalises on existing scientific and technical expertise, skills and initiatives, through past and current European-funded projects or international collaborations.
The construction and first validation of the MINDView system can be considered as a good example of translational research in medecine — which is the main aim of the Health thematic in FP7 — with transfer of basics research chemistry, physics, optics, electronics to clinics with the intermediary steps to integrate the technologies and components, to calibrate the probe through preclinical investigations on pigs and a first clinical testing of the prototype through pilot clinical test on patients with pancreatic tumors.
This deliverable describes the future planned actions to be done by the Consortium related to the exploitation of the project results. The partners identified key target groups for dissemination. It was ensured that the Dissemination and Awareness campaign of the project reached the five following groups: 1.
The General Public through patients organizations; 2. The Clinicians, through different clinical networks of the clinical partners of the project; 4.
The Health and Education Professionals; 5. The industrial stakeholders working in the filed of medical imaging and biomarker development. Moreover some members of the consortium are already involved in large scale dissemination actions. As an example: M. Schwaiger P3 is member of several European medical societies and participates to a number of international events, where he tirelessly promotes the importance of translational research in medicine. The whole consortium has made it possible to publish a high number of works, as a result of the projecrt efforts.
Many, about 20 conference proceedings have been published.You are here
Further, they are often restricted to a specialized embedded platform, or only perform shallow measurements on a component of interest without considering the trustworthiness of its context or the attestation mechanism itself. For modern computing environments with diverse topologies, we can no longer fix a target architecture any more than we can fix a protocol to measure that architecture.
Copland is a domain-specific language and formal framework that provides a vocabulary for specifying the goals of layered attestation protocols. It remains configurable by measurement capability, participants, and platform topology, yet provides a precise reference semantics that characterizes system measurement events and evidence handling; a foundation for comparing protocol alternatives. The aim of this work is to refine the Copland semantics to a more fine-grained notion of attestation manager execution—a high-privilege thread of control responsible for invoking attestation services and bundling evidence results.
The Copland Compiler translates a Copland specification into a sequence of primitive attestation instructions to be executed in the AVM. These components are implemented as functional programs in the Coq proof assistant and proved correct with respect to the Copland reference semantics.
This formal connection is critical in order to trust that protocol specifications are faithfully carried out by the attestation manger implementation.
We also explore synthesis of appraisal routines that leverage the same formally verified infrastructure to interpret evidence generated by Copland protocols and make trust decisions.
With the rapid growth in artificial intelligence AI , AI technologies have completely changed our lives. Especially in the sports field, AI starts to play the role in auxiliary training, data management, and systems that analyze training performance for athletes. Golf is one of the most popular sports in the world, which frequently utilize video analysis during training.
Video analysis falls into the computer vision category. Computer vision is the field that benefited most during the AI revolution, especially the emerging of deep learning. This thesis focuses on the problem of real-time detection and tracking of a golf ball from video sequences. We introduce an efficient and effective solution by integrating object detection and a discrete Kalman model. At the tracking stage, a discrete Kalman filter is employed to predict the location of the golf ball based on its previous observations.
As a trade-off between the detection accuracy and detection time, we took advantage of image patches rather than the entire images for detection.
In order to train the detection models and test the tracking algorithm, we collect and annotate a collection of golf ball dataset. Extensive experimental results are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique and compare the performance of different neural network models. Roughly 1 in 5 people in the United States have an intellectual or developmental disability IDD , which is a substantial amount of the population.
In the realm of human-robot interaction, there have been many attempts to help these individuals lead more productive and independent lives. However, many of these solutions focus on helping individuals with IDD develop social skills. In this thesis, it is posited that an autonomous agent could effectively assist workers with IDD, thereby increasing their productivity. The artificially intelligent disability assistant AIDA is an autonomous agent that uses social scaffolding techniques to assist workers with IDD.
Before designing the system, data was gathered by observing workers with IDD perform tasks in a light manufacturing facility. To test the hypothesis, an initial Wizard-of-Oz WoZ experiment was conducted where subjects had to assemble a box using only either their dominant or non-dominant hand. During the experiment, subjects could ask the robot for assistance, but a human operator controlled whether the robot provided a response. After the experiment, subjects were required to complete a feedback survey.
Additionally, this feedback was used to refine and build the autonomous system for AIDA. The autonomous system is composed of data collection and processing modules, a scaffolding algorithm module, and robot action output modules. This system was tested in a simulated experiment using video recordings from the initial experiment. The results of the simulated experiment provide support for the hypothesis that an autonomous agent using social scaffolding techniques can increase the productivity of workers with IDD.
In the future, it is desired to test the current system in a real-time experiment before using it on workers with IDD. The phenomenal growth of the Internet of Things IoT has highlighted the security and privacy concerns associated with these devices. The research literature on the security architectures of IoT makes evident that we need to define and formalize a framework to secure the communications among these devices.
To do so, it is important to focus on a zero-trust framework that will work on the principle premise of "trust no one, verify everyone" for every request and response. In this thesis, we emphasize the immediate need for such a framework and propose a zero-trust communication model for IoT that addresses security and privacy concerns. We employ the existing cryptographic techniques to implement the framework so that it can be easily integrated into the current network infrastructures.
The framework provides an end-to-end security framework for users and devices to communicate with each other privately. It is often stated that it is difficult to implement high-end encryption algorithm within the limited resource of an IoT device.
For our work, we built a temperature and humidity sensor using NodeMCU V3 and were able to implement the framework and successfully evaluate and document its efficient operation. We defined four areas for evaluation and validation, namely, security of communications, memory utilization of the device, response time of operations, and cost of its implementation. For every aspect we defined a threshold to evaluate and validate our findings.
The results are satisfactory and are documented. Our framework provides an easy-to-use solution where the security infrastructure acts as a backbone for every communication to and from the IoT devices. In this project, the viability of using the IWR sensor for short-range detection of small, high-velocity targets is investigated.
Some of the limitations of the device are explored and a specific radar configuration is proposed. To confirm the applicability of the proposed configuration, a similar configuration is used with the IWRISK-ODS evaluation platform to observe the launch of a foil-wrapped dart. The evaluation platform is used to collect raw data, which is then post-processed in a Python program to generate a range-doppler heatmap visualization of the data.
Program size and complexity have dramatically increased over time. To reduce their work-load, developers began to utilize package managers. These packages managers allow third-party functionality, contained in units called packages, to be quickly imported into a project.
Due to their utility, packages have become remarkably popular. The largest package repository, npm, has more than 1. In recent years, this popularity has attracted the attention of malicious users. Attackers have the ability to upload packages which contain malware. To increase the number of victims, attackers regularly leverage a tactic called typosquatting, which involves giving the malicious package a name that is very similar to the name of a popular package. Users who make a typo when trying to install the popular package fall victim to the attack and are instead served the malicious payload.
The consequences of typosquatting attacks can be catastrophic. Historical typosquatting attacks have exported passwords, stolen cryptocurrency, and opened reverse shells. This thesis focuses on typosquatting attacks in package repositories. It explores the extent to which typosquatting exists in npm and PyPI the de facto standard package repositories for Node.
The presented solution incurs an acceptable temporal overhead of 2. Furthermore, it has been used to discover a particularly high-profile typosquatting perpetrator, which was then reported and has since been deprecated by npm. Typosquatting is an important yet preventable problem. This thesis recommends pack-ages creators to protect their own packages with a technique called defensive typosquatting and repository maintainers to protect all users through augmentations to their package managers or automated monitoring of the package namespace.
Recent advances in waveform generation and in computational power have enabled the design and implementation of new complex radar waveforms. Still, even with these advances in computation, in a pulse agile mode, where the radar transmits unique waveforms at every pulse, the requirement to design physically robust waveforms which achieve good autocorrelation sidelobes, are spectrally contained, and have a constant amplitude envelope for high power operation, can require expensive computation equipment and can impede real time operation.
This work addresses this concern in the context of FM noise waveforms which have been demonstrated in recent years in both simulation and in experiments to achieve low autocorrelation sidelobes through the high dimensionality of coherent integration when operating in a pulse agile mode. However while they are effective, the approaches to design these waveforms requires the optimization of each individual waveform making them subject to the concern above.
This dissertation takes a different approach. Since these FM noise waveforms are meant to be noise like in the first place, the waveforms here are instantiated as the sample functions of a stochastic process which has been specially designed to produce spectrally contained, constant amplitude waveforms with noise like cancellation of sidelobes.
This makes the waveform creation process little more computationally expensive than pulling numbers from a random number generator RNG since the optimization designs a waveform generating function WGF itself rather than each waveform themselves. The effectiveness of these approaches and their ability to generate useful radar waveforms is analyzed using several stochastic waveform generation metrics developed here.
The resulting waveforms will be demonstrated in both loopback and in open-air experiments to be robust to physical implementation. High-order numerical methods for solving PDEs have the potential to deliver higher solution accuracy at a lower cost than their low-order counterparts. To fully leverage these high-order computational methods, they must be paired with a discretization of the domain that accurately captures key geometric features.
In the presence of curved boundaries, this requires a high-order curvilinear mesh. Consequently, there is a lot of interest in high-order mesh generation methods. The majority of such methods warp a high-order straight-sided mesh through the following three step process. First, they add additional nodes to a low-order mesh to create a high-order straight-sided mesh. Second, they move the newly added boundary nodes onto the curved domain i.
Finally, they compute the new locations of the interior nodes based on the boundary deformation. We have developed a mesh warping framework based on optimal weighted combinations of nodal positions.
Within our framework, we develop methods for optimal affine and convex combinations of nodal positions, respectively. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods within our framework on a variety of high-order mesh generation examples in two and three dimensions.
As with many other methods in this area, the methods within our framework do not guarantee the generation of a valid mesh. To address this issue, we have also developed two high-order mesh untangling methods. These optimization-based untangling methods formulate unconstrained optimization problems for which the objective functions are based on the unsigned and signed angles of the curvilinear elements.
We demonstrate the results of our untangling methods on a variety of two-dimensional triangular meshes. With the emergence of autonomous systems such as self-driving cars and drones, the need for high-performance real-time embedded systems is increasing. On the other hand, the physics of the autonomous systems constraints size, weight, and power consumption known as SWaP constraints of the embedded systems.
A solution to satisfy the need for high performance while meeting the SWaP constraints is to incorporate multicore processors in real-time embedded systems. However, unlike unicore processors, in multicore processors, the memory system is shared between the cores.
As a result, the memory system performance varies widely due to inter-core memory interference. This can lead to over-estimating the worst-case execution time WCET of the real-time tasks running on these processors, and therefore, under-utilizing the computation resources. In fact, recent studies have shown that real-time tasks can be slowed down more than times due to inter-core memory interference.
Scheduling of real-time tasks involves analytically determining whether each task in a group of periodic tasks can finish before its deadline. This problem is well understood for unicore platforms and there are exact schedulability tests which can be used for this purpose. However, in multicore platforms, sharing of hardware resources between simultaneously executing real-time tasks creates non-deterministic coupling between them based on their requirement of the shared hardware resource s which significantly complicates the schedulability analysis.
The standard practice is to over-estimate the worst-case execution time WCET of the real-time tasks, by a constant factor e. Although widely used, this practice has two serious flaws. Firstly, it can make the schedulability analysis overly pessimistic because all tasks do not interfere with each other equally. Secondly, recent findings have shown that for tasks that do get affected by shared resource interference, they can experience extreme e.
Apart from the problem of WCET estimation, the established schedulability analyses for multicore platforms are inherently pessimistic due to the effect of carry-in jobs from high priority tasks. Finally, the increasing integration of hardware accelerators e. We propose a novel approach towards scheduling of real-time tasks on heterogeneous multicore platforms with the aim of increased determinism and utilization in the online execution of real-time tasks and decreased pessimism in the offline schedulability analysis.
Under this framework, we propose to statically group different real-time tasks into a single scheduling entity called a virtual-gang. Once formed, these virtual-gangs are to be executed one-at-a-time with strict regulation on interference from other sources with the help of state-of-the-art techniques for performance isolation in multicore platforms.
Using this idea, we can achieve three goals. Firstly, we can limit the effect of shared resource interference which can exist only between tasks that are part of the same virtual-gang. Secondly, due to one-gang-at-a-time policy, we can transform the complex problem of scheduling real-time tasks on multicore platforms into simple and well-understood problem of scheduling these tasks on unicore platforms. Thirdly, we can demonstrate that it is easy to incorporate scheduling on integrated GPUs into our framework while preserving the determinism of the overall system.
We show that the virtual-gang formation problem can be modeled as an optimization problem and present algorithms for solving it with different trade-offs. We propose to fully implement this framework in the open-source Linux kernel and evaluate it both analytically using generated tasksets and empirically with realistic case-studies. The Internet of Things IoT is evolving rapidly to every aspect of human life including, healthcare, homes, cities, and driverless vehicles that makes humans more dependent on the Internet and related infrastructure.
Since the range of service requirements varies at the edge of the network, a wide variety of technologies with different topologies are involved. Though the heterogeneity of the technologies at the edge networks can improve the robustness through the diversity of mechanisms, other issues such as connectivity among the utilized technologies and cascade of failures would not have the same effect as a simple network.
Therefore, regardless of the size of networks at the edge, the structure of these networks is complicated and requires appropriate study. In this dissertation, we propose an abstract model for smart homes, as part of one of the fast-growing networks at the edge, to illustrate the heterogeneity and complexity of the network structure.
As the next step, we make two instances of the abstract smart home model and perform a graph-theoretic analysis to recognize the fundamental behavior of the network to improve its robustness. During the process, we introduce a formal multilayer graph model to highlight the structures, topologies, and connectivity of various technologies at the edge networks and their connections to the Internet core.
Furthermore, we propose another graph model, technology interdependence graph, to represent the connectivity of technologies. This representation shows the degree of connectivity among technologies and illustrates which technologies are more vulnerable to link and node failures. Moreover, the dominant topologies at the edge change the node and link vulnerability, which can be used to apply worst-case scenario attacks.
Restructuring of the network by adding new links associated with various protocols to maximize the robustness of a given network can have distinctive outcomes for different robustness metrics.
However, typical centrality metrics usually fail to identify important nodes in multi-technology networks such as smart homes. We propose four new centrality metrics to improve the process of identifying important nodes in multi-technology networks and recognize vulnerable nodes. Finally, we study over different smart home topologies to examine the resilience of the networks with typical and the proposed centrality metrics.
In the wake of the Facebook data breach scandal, users begin to realize how vulnerable their per-sonal data is and how blindly they trust the online social networks OSNs by giving them an inordinate amount of private data that touch on unlimited areas of their lives.
In particular, stud-ies show that users sometimes reveal too much information or unintentionally release regretful messages, especially when they are careless, emotional, or unaware of privacy risks.
In this dissertation, we propose a context-aware, text-based quantitative model for private information assessment, namely PrivScore, which is expected to serve as the foundation of a privacy leakage alerting mechanism. We first solicit diverse opinions on the sensitiveness of private information from crowdsourcing workers, and examine the responses to discover a perceptual model behind the consensuses and disagreements. We then develop a computational scheme using deep neural networks to compute a context-free PrivScore i.
Finally, we integrate tweet histories, topic preferences and social contexts to generate a per-sonalized context-aware PrivScore. This privacy scoring mechanism could be employed to identify potentially-private messages and alert users to think again before posting them to OSNs. Such a mechanism could also benefit non-human users such as social media chatbots.
The Internet of Things is a rapidly growing field that offers improved data collection, analysis and automation as solutions for everyday problems. A smart-city is one major example where these solutions can be applied to issues with urbanization.
Data collected in a smart-city can infringe upon the privacy of users and reveal potentially harmful information. One example is a surveillance system in a smart city. Research shows that people are less likely to commit crimes if they are being watched. Video footage can also be used by law enforcement to track and stop criminals. But it can also be harmful if accessible to untrusted users.
A malicious user who can gain access to a surveillance system can potentially use that information to harm others. There are researched methods that can be used to encrypt the video feed, but then it is only accessible to the system owner. Polls show that public opinion of surveillance systems is declining even if they provide increased security because of the lack of transparency in the system.
Therefore, it is vital for the system to be able to do its intended purpose while also preserving privacy and holding malicious users accountable. These anonymous captions are stored on the immutable blockchain and are accessible by other users. If they find the description from another camera relevant to their own, they can request the raw video footage if necessary. This system supports collaboration between cameras from different networks, such as between two neighbors with their own private camera networks.
Our contributions include exploring a novel approach to anonymizing detected events and designing the surveillance system to be privacy-preserving and collaborative. Dynamic binary translation is the process of translating instruction code from one architecture to another while it executes, i.
As modern applications are becoming larger, more complex and more dynamic, the tools to manipulate these programs are also becoming increasingly complex.
DynamoRIO includes applications ranging from program analysis and understanding to profiling, instrumentation, optimization, improving software security, and more. However, even considering all of these optimization techniques, DynamoRIO still has the limitations of performance and memory usage, which restrict deployment scalability.
The goal of my thesis is to break down the various aspects which contribute to the overhead burden and evaluate which factors directly contribute to this overhead. This thesis will discuss all of these factors in further detail. If the process can be streamlined, this application will become more viable for widespread adoption in a variety of areas. We have used industry standard Mi benchmarks in order to evaluate in detail the amount and distribution of the overhead in DynamoRIO.
Our statistics from the experiments show that DynamoRIO executes a large number of additional instructions when compared to the native execution of the application. Furthermore, these additional instructions are involved in building the basic blocks, linking, trace creation, and resolution of indirect branches, all of which in return contribute to the frequent exiting of the code cache.
We will discuss in detail all of these overheads, show statistics of instructions for each overhead, and finally show the observations and analysis in this defense. Optical sensors are increasingly prevalent devices whose costs tend to increase with their sensitivity. A hike in sensitivity is typically associated with fragility, rendering expensive devices vulnerable to threats of high intensity illumination.
These potential costs and even security risks have generated interest in devices that maintain linear transparency under tolerable levels of illumination, but can quickly convert to opaque when a threshold is exceeded. Such a device is deemed an optical limiter. Copious amounts of research have been performed over the last few decades on optical nonlinearities and their efficacy in limiting. This work provides an overview of the existing literature and evaluates the applicability of known limiting materials to threats that vary in both temporal and spectral width.
Additionally, we introduce the concept of plasmonic parametric resonance PPR and its potential for devising a new limiting material, the plasmonic parametric absorber PPA. We show that this novel material exhibits a reverse saturable absorption behavior and promises to be an effective tool in the kit of optical limiter design.
The Internet of Things is been a rapidly growing field that offers improved data collection, analysis and automation as solutions for everyday problems. Interference has been a subject of interest to radars for generations due to its ability to degrade performance. Commercial radars can experience radio frequency RF interference from a different RF service such as radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, communications, satellites, etc. The RF spectrum is a finite asset that is regulated to mitigate interference and maximum resources.
Recently, shared spectrum have been proposed to accommodate the growing commercial demand of communication systems. Airborne radars, performing ground moving target indication GMTI , encounter interference from clutter scattering that may mask slow-moving, low-power targets. Each estimation technique reduces sidelobes, provides less signal-to-noise loss, and less resolution degradation than windowing.
Application specific reduce rank versions of the algorithms are also introduced for real-time operation. RMMSE is further considered to separate radar and mobile communication systems operating in the same RF band to mitigate interference and information loss. Managed language virtual machines VM rely on dynamic or just-in-time JIT compilation to generate optimized native code at run-time to deliver high execution performance.
PGOs are generally considered integral for VMs to produce high-quality and performant native code. Likewise, many static, ahead-of-time AOT compilers employ PGOs to achieve peak performance, though they are less commonly employed in practice. Additionally, we propose an extension of PGOs found in AOT compiler based on specialization and seek to perform a feasibility study to determine its viability.
As the upcoming fifth-generation 5G and future wireless network is envisioned in areas such as augmented and virtual reality, industrial control, automated driving or flying, robotics, etc, the requirement of supporting ultra-reliable low-latency communications URLLC is increasingly urgent than ever. From the channel coding perspective, URLLC requires codewords being transported in finite block-lengths.
In this regards, we propose novel encoding algorithms and analyze their performance behaviors for the finite-length Luby transform LT codes. Luby transform LT codes, the first practical realization and the fundamental core of fountain codes, play a key role in the fountain codes family. Recently, researchers show that the performance of LT codes for finite block-lengths can be improved by adding memory into the encoder. However, this work only utilizes one memory, leaving the possibilities of exploiting and how to exploiting more memories an open problem.
To explore this unknown, in this work we propose an entire family of memory based LT encoders, and analyze their performance behaviors thoroughly over binary erasure channels and AWGN channels.
Data mining is an important part of the knowledge discovery process. Data mining helps in finding out patterns across large data sets and establishing relationship through data analysis to solve problems. Input data sets are often incomplete, i. The rough set theory offers mathematical tools to discover patterns hidden in inconsistent and incomplete data.
Rough set theory handles inconsistent data by introducing probabilistic approximations. These approximations are combined with an additional parameter or threshold called alpha. The main objective of this project is to compare global and saturated probabilistic approximations using characteristic sets in mining incomplete data.
Two different variations of missing values were used, namely, lost values and "do not care" conditions. For rule induction, we implemented the single local probabilistic approximation version of MLEM2. We implemented a rule checker system to verify the accuracy of our generated ruleset by computing the error rate.
Along with the rule checker system, the k-fold cross-validation technique was implemented with a value of k as ten to validate the generated rule sets. Finally, a statistical analysis was done for all the approaches using the Friedman test. Mobile application security concerns safeguarding mobile apps from threats, such as malware, password cracking, social engineering and other attacks.
Application security is crucial for every enterprise, as the business can be developed only with the guarantee that the apps are secure from potential threats. The objective of my project is to analyze the security risks of android application, using the guidelines from OWASP top With the help of suitable tools, analysis is done to identify the vulnerabilities and threats in android applications, on API 4.
Numerous tools have been used as a part of this endeavor, all of them are open source and freely available. As a part of this project, I have also attempted to demonstrate each of the top 10 risks, using individual android applications. A detailed analysis was performed on each of the top 10 mobile risks, and suitable countermeasures for mitigation was provided. A detailed survey of popular applications from the Google Play store was also performed and the risks were categorized into low, medium and high impact, depending on the level of threats.
In real world environments, the speech signals received by our ears are usually a combination of different sounds that include not only the target speech, but also acoustic interference like music, background noise, and competing speakers.
This interference has negative effect on speech perception and degrades the performance of speech processing applications such as automatic speech recognition ASR , speaker identification, and hearing aid devices. One way to solve this problem is using source separation algorithms to separate the desired speech from the interfering sounds.
Many source separation algorithms have been proposed to improve the performance of ASR systems and hearing aid devices, but it is still challenging for these systems to work efficiently in noisy and reverberant environments. On the other hand, humans have a remarkable ability to separate desired sounds and listen to a specific talker among noise and other talkers. Inspired by the capabilities of human auditory system, a popular method known as auditory scene analysis ASA was proposed to separate different sources in a two stage process of segmentation and grouping.
The main goal of source separation in ASA is to estimate time frequency masks that optimally match and separate noise signals from a mixture of speech and noise. In this work, multiple algorithms are proposed to improve upon source separation in noisy and reverberant acoustic environment. First, a simple and novel algorithm is proposed to increase the discriminability between two sound sources by scaling magnifying the head-related transfer function of the interfering source.
Experimental results from applications of this algorithm show a significant increase in the quality of the recovered target speech. Second, a time frequency masking-based source separation algorithm is proposed that can separate a male speaker from a female speaker in reverberant conditions by using the spatial cues of the source signals. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has the ability to preserve the location of the sources after separation. Three major aims are proposed for supervised speech separation based on deep neural networks to estimate either the time frequency masks or the clean speech spectrum.
Firstly, a novel monaural acoustic feature set based on a gammatone filterbank is presented to be used as the input of the deep neural network DNN based speech separation model, which shows significant improvement in objective speech intelligibility and speech quality in different testing conditions.
Secondly, a complementary binaural feature set is proposed to increase the ability of source separation in adverse environment with non-stationary background noise and high reverberation using 2-channel recordings. Experimental results show that the combination of spatial features with this complementary feature set improves significantly the speech intelligibility and speech quality in noisy and reverberant conditions.
Thirdly, a novel dilated convolution neural network is proposed to improve the generalization of the monaural supervised speech enhancement model to different untrained speakers, unseen noises and simulated rooms. This model increases the speech intelligibility and speech quality of the recovered speech significantly, while being computationally more efficient and requiring less memory in comparison to other models. In addition, the proposed model is modified with recurrent layers and dilated causal convolution layers for real-time processing.
This model is causal which makes it suitable for implementation in hearing aid devices and ASR system, while having fewer trainable parameters and using only information about previous time frames in output prediction. The main goal of the proposed algorithms are to increase the intelligibility and the quality of the recovered speech from noisy and reverberant environments, which has the potential to improve both speech processing applications and signal processing strategies for hearing aid and cochlear implant technology.
The non-ending growth of data traffic resulting from the continuing emergence of Internet applications with high data-rate demands sets huge capacity requirements on optical interconnects and transport networks. This requires the adoption of optical communication technologies that can make the best possible use of the available bandwidths of electronic and electro-optic components to enable data transmission with high spectral efficiency SE. Therefore, advanced modulation formats are required to be used in conjunction with energy-efficient and cost-effective transceiver schemes, especially for medium- and short-reach applications.
Important challenges facing these goals are the stringent requirements on the characteristics of optical components comprising these systems, especially laser sources. Laser phase noise is one of the most important performance-limiting factors in systems with high spectral efficiency. In this research work, we study the effects of the spectral characteristics of laser phase noise on the characterization of lasers and their impact on the performance of digital coherent and self-coherent optical communication schemes.
The results of this study show that the commonly-used metric to estimate the impact of laser phase noise on the performance, laser linewidth, is not reliable for all types of lasers. Instead, we propose a Lorentzian-equivalent linewidth as a general characterization parameter for laser phase noise to assess phase noise-related system performance. Practical aspects of determining the proposed parameter are also studied and its accuracy is validated by both numerical and experimental demonstrations.
Furthermore, we study the phase noises in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers QD-MLLs and assess the feasibility of employing these devices in coherent applications at relatively low symbol rates with high SE. A novel multi-heterodyne scheme for characterizing the phase noise of laser frequency comb sources is also proposed and validated by experimental results with the QD-MLL.
This proposed scheme is capable of measuring the differential phase noise between multiple spectral lines instantaneously by a single measurement. Moreover, we also propose an energy-efficient and cost-effective transmission scheme based on direct detection of field-modulated optical signals with advanced modulation formats, allowing for higher SE compared to the current pulse-amplitude modulation schemes.
The proposed system combines the Kramers-Kronig self-coherent receiver technique, with the use of QD-MLLs, to transmit multi-channel optical signals using a single diode laser source without the use of the additional RF or optical components required by traditional techniques. Semi-numerical simulations based on experimentally captured waveforms from practical lasers show that the proposed system can be used even for metro scale applications.
Finally, we study the properties of phase and intensity noise changes in unmodulated optical signals passing through saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers for intensity noise reduction. We report, for the first time, on the effect of phase noise enhancement that cannot be assessed or observed by traditional linewidth measurements.
We demonstrate the impact of this phase noise enhancement on coherent transmission performance by both semi-numerical simulations and experimental validation. The memory for events is a central component in human cognition, but we have yet to see artificial agents that can demonstrate the same range of event memory capabilities as humans.
Some machine learning systems are capable of behaving as if they remember and reason about events, but often times, their behavior is produced by an ad hoc assemblage of opaque statistical algorithms which yield little new insights on the nature of event memory. We propose a novel, psychologically plausible theory of event memory with an accompanying implementation which affords integrated agents the ability to remember events, present details about their past experiences, and reason about future events.
We propose to demonstrate such event memory reasoning capabilities in three different experiments. First, we evaluate the fundamental capabilities of our theory to explain different event memory phenomena, such as remembering. Second, we aim to show that our event memory theory provides a unified framework for building intelligent agents that generate explanations of their own behavior and make inferences about the goals and intentions of other actors.
Third, we evaluate whether our event memory theory facilitates cooperative behavior of computational agents in human-robot teams. The proposed work will be completed in December If our efforts are successful, we believe it will change the way humans interact with autonomous agents. People will better understand why robots, self-driving vehicles, and other agents behave the way they do, and as a result, will know when to trust them. This in turn will speed adoption of autonomous systems not only in military settings but, in everyday life.
However, the reasons for such huge empirical success of DL still keep elusive theoretically. In this dissertation, to understand DL and improve its efficiency, robustness, and interpretability, we theoretically investigate optimization algorithms for training deep models and empirically explore deep learning for unsupervised learning tasks in point-cloud analysis and image classification. Optimization for Training Deep Models: Neural network training is one of the most difficult optimization problems involved in DL.
Recently, to understand the global optimality in DL has attracted a lot of attention. However, we observe that conventional DL solvers have not been developed intentionally to seek for such global optimality. In this dissertation, we propose a novel approximation algorithm, BPGrad, towards optimizing deep models globally via branch and pruning.
Deep Learning for Unsupervised Learning Tasks: The architecture of neural networks is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. In this dissertation, we focus on the emerging field of unsupervised learning for point clouds analysis and image classification. Extensive experiments evaluate our technique on several object models and a varying number of instances in 3D point clouds. Compared with popular baselines for instance segmentation, our model not only demonstrates competitive performance, but also learns a 3D object model that is represented as a 3D point cloud.
No fine-tuning is required in our method. Our network can be embedded into the state-of-the-art deep neural networks as a plug-in feature enhancement module.
It preserves data structures in feature space for high-resolution images, and transfers the distinguishing features to low-resolution features space. Extensive experiments show that the proposed transfer network achieves significant improvements over the baseline method. In today's world of digital data, the field of data mining has come into the limelight. In data mining, patterns in data are found and accordingly can be analyzed further.
Processing data as deep as possible is relevant in case of pattern recognition in huge data sets. In this whole process, we try to understand the data well in order to gain some useful results out of it.
For the data to be analyzed correctly, it is better if it is complete and consistent. We compare the effect of incomplete and inconsistent data in this project. We used a single local probabilistic approach for all the datasets. We took datasets into consideration for the error rate comparison of incomplete and inconsistent data.
We used ten-fold cross validation and computed average error rate for each of the datasets. From our experiments, we observed that the error rate for incomplete data is greater than the error rate for inconsistent data. Trends toward large-scale integration and the high-power application of green energy resources necessitate the advent of efficient power converter topologies, multilevel converters. Multilevel inverters are effective solutions for high power and medium voltage DC-to-AC conversion due to their higher efficiency, provision of system redundancy, and generation of near-sinusoidal output voltage waveform.
Recently, modular multilevel converter MMC has become increasingly attractive. To improve the harmonic profile of the output voltage, there is the need to increase the number of output voltage levels. However, this would require increasing the number of submodules SMs and power semi-conductor devices and their associated gate driver and protection circuitry, resulting in the overall multilevel converter to be complex and expensive.
Specifically, the need for large number of bulky capacitors in SMs of conventional MMC is seen as a major obstacle. This work proposes an MMC-based multilevel converter that provides the same output voltage as conventional MMC but has reduced number of bulky capacitors.
This is achieved by introduction of an extra middle arm to the conventional MMC. Due to similar dynamic equations of the proposed converter with conventional MMC, several previously developed control methods for voltage balancing in the literature for conventional MMCs are applicable to the proposed MMC with minimal effort. Comparative loss analysis of the conventional MMC and the proposed multilevel converter under different power factors and modulation indexes illustrates the lower switching loss of proposed MMC.
In addition, a new voltage balancing technique based on carrier-disposition pulse width modulation for modular multilevel converter is proposed.
Medium-voltage DC MVDC and high-voltage DC HVDC grids have been the focus of numerous research studies in recent years due to their increasing applications in rapidly growing grid-connected renewable energy systems, such as wind and solar farms.
Specifically, they offer a significant reduction in the size of the MMC arm capacitors along with the ac-link transformer and arm inductors due to the ac-link transformer operating at medium frequencies.
Compared with SPS control, PSAR control not only provides wider transmission power range and enhances operation flexibility of converter, but also reduces current stress of medium-frequency transformer and power switches of MMCs. An algorithm is developed for simple implementation of the PSAR control to work at the least current stress operating point.
Hardware-in-the-loop results confirm the theoretical outcomes of the proposed control method. To design highly precise 3D object detection approaches for autonomous vehicle has been a crucial topic recently. Shallow machine learning methods such as clustering, support vector machines fail to accomplish multi-modal tasks for self-driving vehicle, while deep-learning based methods gain great success in regressing accurate 3D bound boxes and pose estimation of objects in complicated road scene.
Though deep neural networks designed for LiDAR points and monocular-view inputs achieve highest performance in 3D object detection, binocular-views based networks suffer from intrinsic ambiguities therefore yielding less precise regressions. To remedy the ambiguities, we propose an efficient module to bridge the gap between 2D objection detection on stereopsis and real LiDAR points.
Experiments on challenging KITTI dataset show that our method outperforms state-of-the-arts binocular-views based methods. For the past several years, with almost every system being upgraded and digitized, data are getting generated and collected in huge amounts.
But there is no use of collecting huge amounts of data unless we can make sense out of it. Generating rules from datasets helps to predict the possible outcomes from given datasets. The predictions are never error free and so all we can do is create rules from datasets that are as accurate as possible. Rule induction from large datasets can be based on different principles and rules induced from applying different methods lead to rulesets with different levels of accuracy.
Some rules are more accurate than others. In this project, the goal is to compare two approaches of rule induction, from characteristic sets and from maximal consistent blocks.
The aim is to study the error rates of rules generated by taking either of the two approaches. To validate the error rates of the rulesets, fold cross validation method is applied. In this work, we consider the evolving landscape of IoT devices and the threat posed by the pervasive botnets that have been forming over the last several years.
We look at two specific cases in this work. One being the practical application of a botnet system actively executing a Man in the Middle Attack against SSH, and the other leveraging the same paradigm as a case of eavesdropping on Internet Protocol IP cameras.
For the latter case, we construct a web portal for interrogating IP cameras directly for information that they may be exposing. With the rise of software defined radios SDR and the trend towards integrating more RF components into MMICs the cost and complexity of multichannel radar development has gone down.
High-speed RF data converters have seen continuous increases in both sampling rate and resolution, further rendering a growing subset of components in an RF chain unnecessary. A radar platform was developed around the RFSoC to demonstrate the capabilities of the chip when acting as a digital backend and evaluate its role in future radar designs at CReSIS.
An antenna array was constructed out of printed-circuit elements to validate radar system performance. Firmware developed for the RFSoC enables radar features that will prove useful in future sensor platforms used for the remote sensing of snow, soil moisture, or crop canopies. Also, as most of the systems software has been written using these languages, replacing them with memory safe languages altogether is currently impossible. Memory safety violations are commonplace, despite the fact that that there have been numerous attempts made to conquer them using source code, compiler and post compilation based approaches.
However, SoftBound needs and depends on program information available in the high-level source code. The goal of our work is to develop a mechanism to efficiently and effectively implement a technique, like SoftBound, to provide spatial memory safety for binary executables. Our approach employs a combination of static-time analysis using Ghidra and dynamic-time instrumentation checks using PIN.
Optical see-through head-mounted display with occlusion capability. Lack of mutual occlusion capability between computer-rendered and real objects is one of fundamental problems for most existing optical see-through head-mounted displays OST-HMD.
Without the proper occlusion management, the virtual view through an OST-HMD appears "ghost-like", floating in the real world. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative optical scheme that uniquely combines the eyepiece and see-through relay optics to achieve an occlusion-capable OST-HMD system with a very compelling form factor and high optical performances. The proposed display technology was capable of working in both indoor and outdoor environments.
Our current design offered a x color resolution based on 0. The design achieved a diagonal FOV of 40 degrees, The optics weights about 20 grams per eye. Our proposed occlusion capable OST-HMD system can easily find myriads of applications in various military and commercial sectors such as military training, gaming and entertainment.
A low-cost multimodal head-mounted display system for neuroendoscopic surgery. With rapid advances in technology, wearable devices as head-mounted display HMD have been adopted for various uses in medical science, ranging from simply aiding in fitness to assisting surgery. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and practicability of a low-cost multimodal HMD system in neuroendoscopic surgery. A multimodal HMD system, mainly consisted of a HMD with two built-in displays , an action camera, and a laptop computer displaying reconstructed medical images, was developed to assist neuroendoscopic surgery.
With this intensively integrated system, the neurosurgeon could freely switch between endoscopic image, three-dimensional 3D reconstructed virtual endoscopy images, and surrounding environment images. Using a leap motion controller, the neurosurgeon could adjust or rotate the 3D virtual endoscopic images at a distance to better understand the positional relation between lesions and normal tissues at will. A total of 21 consecutive patients with ventricular system diseases underwent neuroendoscopic surgery with the aid of this system.
All operations were accomplished successfully, and no system-related complications occurred. The HMD was comfortable to wear and easy to operate. Screen resolution of the HMD was high enough for the neurosurgeon to operate carefully. With the system, the neurosurgeon might get a better comprehension on lesions by freely switching among images of different modalities.
The system had a steep learning curve, which meant a quick increment of skill with it. Compared with commercially available surgical assistant instruments, this system was relatively low-cost.
The multimodal HMD system is feasible, practical, helpful, and relatively cost efficient in neuroendoscopic surgery. This poster details a study investigating the effect of Head Mounted Display HMD weight and locomotion method Walking-In-Place and treadmill walking on the perceived naturalness of virtual walking speeds. The results revealed significant main effects of movement type, but no significant effec Virtual reality exposure treatment of agoraphobia: a comparison of computer automatic virtual environment and head-mounted display.
In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy VRET were investigated in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Results indicate. A traditional accommodation for the deaf or hard-of-hearing in a planetarium show is some type of captioning system or a signer on the floor. Both of these have significant drawbacks given the nature of a planetarium show. Young audience members who are deaf likely don't have the reading skills needed to make a captioning system effective.
A signer on the floor requires light which can then splash onto the dome. Our preliminary test used a canned planetarium show with a pre-recorded sound track. Since many astronomical objects don't have official ASL signs, the signer had to use classifiers to describe the different objects. Since these are not official signs, these classifiers provided a way to test to see if students were picking up the information using the HMD.
We will present results that demonstrate that the use of HMDs is at least as effective as projecting a signer on the dome. This also showed that the HMD could provide the necessary accommodation for students for whom captioning was ineffective. We will also discuss the current effort to provide a live signer without the light splash effect and our early results on teaching effectiveness with HMDs.
The effect of viewing a virtual environment through a head-mounted display on balance. In the next few years, several head-mounted displays HMD will be publicly released making virtual reality more accessible. HMD are expected to be widely popular at home for gaming but also in clinical settings, notably for training and rehabilitation. HMD can be used in both seated and standing positions; however, presently, the impact of HMD on balance remains largely unknown.
It is therefore crucial to examine the impact of viewing a virtual environment through a HMD on standing balance. To compare static and dynamic balance in a virtual environment perceived through a HMD and the physical environment. The visual representation of the virtual environment was based on filmed image of the physical environment and was therefore highly similar. This is an observational study in healthy adults. No significant difference was observed between the two environments for static balance.
However, dynamic balance was more perturbed in the virtual environment when compared to that of the physical environment. HMD should be used with caution because of its detrimental impact on dynamic balance. Sensorimotor conflict possibly explains the impact of HMD on balance. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time. Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation.
The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display Oculus Rift , simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software Parrot Coaster and Helix.
There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated.
We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology.
Amblyopia treatment of adults with dichoptic training using the virtual reality oculus rift head mounted display : preliminary results. Background The gold standard treatments in amblyopia are penalizing therapies, such as patching or blurring vision with atropine that are aimed at forcing the use of the amblyopic eye.
However, in the last years, new therapies are being developed and validated, such as dichoptic visual training, aimed at stimulating the amblyopic eye and eliminating the interocular supression.
Purpose To evaluate the effect of dichoptic visual training using a virtual reality head mounted display in a sample Dahlquist, Lynnda M. Pain threshold elapsed time until the child reported pain and pain tolerance total time the child kept the hand submer Usability Comparisons of Head-Mounted vs. Researchers have shown that immersive Virtual Reality VR can serve as an unusually powerful pain control technique.
However, research assessing the reported symptoms and negative effects of VR systems indicate that it is important to ascertain if these symptoms arise from the use of particular VR display devices, particularly for users who are deemed "at risk," such as chronic pain patients Moreover, these patients have specific and often complex needs and requirements, and because basic issues such as 'comfort' may trigger anxiety or panic attacks, it is important to examine basic questions of the feasibility of using VR displays.
The characteristics of these immersive desktop displays differ: one is worn, enabling patients to move their heads , while the other is peered into, allowing less head movement.
To assess the severity of physical discomforts, 20 chronic pain patients tried both displays while watching a VR pain management demo in clinical settings. However, results also indicated other preferences of the two VR displays among patients, including physical comfort levels and a sense of immersion. Few studies have been conducted that compare usability of specific VR devices specifically with chronic pain patients using a therapeutic virtual environment in pain clinics.
Thus, the results may help clinicians and researchers to choose the most appropriate VR displays for chronic pain patients and guide VR designers to enhance the usability of VR displays for long-term pain management interventions. We conducted a study to examine the effects of target cueing and conformality with a hand-held or head-mounted display to determine their effects on visual search tasks requiring focused and divided attention The gold standard treatments in amblyopia are penalizing therapies, such as patching or blurring vision with atropine that are aimed at forcing the use of the amblyopic eye.
To evaluate the effect of dichoptic visual training using a virtual reality head mounted display in a sample of anisometropic amblyopic adults and to evaluate the potential usefulness of this option of treatment.
A total of 17 subjects 10 men, 7 women with a mean age of Future clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence. Retrospectively registered. Development of a surgical navigation system based on augmented reality using an optical see-through head-mounted display.
The surgical navigation system has experienced tremendous development over the past decades for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of the surgery. Nowadays, Augmented Reality AR -based surgical navigation is a promising technology for clinical applications. In the AR system, virtual and actual reality are mixed, offering real-time, high-quality visualization of an extensive variety of information to the users Moussa et al. For example, virtual anatomical structures such as soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves can be integrated with the real-world scenario in real time.
In this study, an AR-based surgical navigation system AR-SNS is developed using an optical see-through HMD head-mounted display , aiming at improving the safety and reliability of the surgery. With the use of this system, including the calibration of instruments, registration, and the calibration of HMD, the 3D virtual critical anatomical structures in the head-mounted display are aligned with the actual structures of patient in real-world scenario during the intra-operative motion tracking process.
The accuracy verification experiment demonstrated that the mean distance and angular errors were respectively 0. Binocular vision in a virtual world: visual deficits following the wearing of a head-mounted display. The short-term effects on binocular stability of wearing a conventional head-mounted display HMD to explore a virtual reality environment were examined.
Twenty adult subjects aged years wore a commercially available HMD for 10 min while cycling around a computer generated 3-D world. The twin screen presentations were set to suit the average interpupillary distance of our subject population, to mimic the conditions of public access virtual reality systems. Subjects were examined before and after exposure to the HMD and there were clear signs of induced binocular stress for a number of the subjects.
The implications of introducing such HMDs into the workplace and entertainment environments are discussed. Effects of videogame distraction using a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in children.
To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Forty-one children, aged years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order.
Pain threshold elapsed time until the child reported pain and pain tolerance total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water were measured for each cold pressor trial. Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline.
Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children.
Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited. Weiss, Karen E. Talk to the virtual hands: self-animated avatars improve communication in head-mounted display virtual environments. Motion tracking technology enables us to include body gestures in avatar-mediated communication, by mapping one's movements onto one's own 3D avatar in real time, so the avatar is self-animated. We conducted two experiments to investigate a whether head-mounted display virtual reality is useful for researching the influence of body gestures in communication; and b whether body gestures are used to help in communicating the meaning of a word.
Participants worked in pairs and played a communication game, where one person had to describe the meanings of words to the other. Participants 'passed' gave up describing significantly more words when they were talking to a static avatar no nonverbal feedback available. In experiment 2, participants' performance was significantly worse when they were talking to an avatar with a prerecorded listening animation, compared with an avatar animated by their partners' real movements.
In both experiments participants used significantly more hand gestures when they played the game in the real world. A new head-mounted display -based augmented reality system in neurosurgical oncology: a study on phantom. Benefits of minimally invasive neurosurgery mandate the development of ergonomic paradigms for neuronavigation.
Augmented Reality AR systems can overcome the shortcomings of commercial neuronavigators. The aim of this work is to apply a novel AR system, based on a head-mounted stereoscopic video see-through display , as an aid in complex neurological lesion targeting. Effectiveness was investigated on a newly designed patient-specific head mannequin featuring an anatomically realistic brain phantom with embedded synthetically created tumors and eloquent areas.
A two-phase evaluation process was adopted in a simulated small tumor resection adjacent to Broca's area. Phase I involved nine subjects without neurosurgical training in performing spatial judgment tasks. In Phase II, three surgeons were involved in assessing the effectiveness of the AR-neuronavigator in performing brain tumor targeting on a patient-specific head phantom.
Phase I revealed the ability of the AR scene to evoke depth perception under different visualization modalities. Phase II confirmed the potentialities of the AR-neuronavigator in aiding the determination of the optimal surgical access to the surgical target.
The AR-neuronavigator is intuitive, easy-to-use, and provides three-dimensional augmented information in a perceptually-correct way. The system proved to be effective in guiding skin incision, craniotomy, and lesion targeting. The preliminary results encourage a structured study to prove clinical effectiveness. Moreover, our testing platform might be used to facilitate training in brain tumour resection procedures. A head-mounted display -based personal integrated-image monitoring system for transurethral resection of the prostate.
The head-mounted display HMD is a new image monitoring system. The imaging information obtained from the cystoscope, the transurethral ultrasonography TRUS , the video camera attached to the HMD, and the patient's vital signs monitor were split and integrated by the PIM System and a composite image was displayed by the HMD using a four-split screen technique.
Wearing the HMD, the lead surgeon and the assistant could simultaneously and continuously monitor the same information displayed by the HMD in an ergonomically efficient posture. Each participant could independently rearrange the images comprising the composite image depending on the engaging step.
In both cases, the TURP procedure was successfully performed, and their postoperative clinical courses had no remarkable unfavorable events. During the procedure, none of the participants experienced any HMD-wear related adverse effects or reported any discomfort. Comparison of optical see-through head-mounted displays for surgical interventions with object-anchored 2D- display. Optical see-through head-mounted displays OST-HMD feature an unhindered and instantaneous view of the surgery site and can enable a mixed reality experience for surgeons during procedures.
In this paper, we present a systematic approach to identify the criteria for evaluation of OST-HMD technologies for specific clinical scenarios, which benefit from using an object-anchored 2D- display visualizing medical information.
Criteria for evaluating the performance of OST-HMDs for visualization of medical information and its usage are identified and proposed. These include text readability, contrast perception, task load, frame rate, and system lag. We choose to compare three commercially available OST-HMDs, which are representatives of currently available head-mounted display technologies.
A multi-user study and an offline experiment are conducted to evaluate their performance. The integration of indoor localization and fiducial tracking on the HoloLens provides significantly less system lag in a relatively motionless scenario. With ever more OST-HMDs appearing on the market, the proposed criteria could be used in the evaluation of their suitability for mixed reality surgical intervention.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents a methodology and conducts experiments to evaluate and compare OST-HMDs for their use as object-anchored 2D- display during interventions. Wearable camera and display technology allow remote collaborators to guide activities performed by human agents located elsewhere. This kind of technology augments the range of human perception and actuation. In this paper we quantitatively determine if wearable laser pointers are viable Effect of the Oculus Rift head mounted display on postural stability.
Two tests were conducted: full-vision versus blindfolded and HMD versus monitor display. Results were that five of the six balance-impaired adults and six of the eight non-balance-impaired adults showed higher degree of postural stability while using a monitor display This study explored how a HMD-experienced virtual environment influences physical balance of six balance-impaired adults years-of-age, when compared to a control group of eight non-balance-impaired adults, years-of-age.
The setup included a Microsoft Kinect and a self-created balance Conclusions are that HMD, used in this context, leads to postural instability Virtual Environments aka Virtual Reality is again catching the public imagination and a number of startups e. Oculus and even not-so-startup companies e. Microsoft are trying to develop display systems to capitalize on this renewed interest. All acknowledge that this time they will get it right by providing the required dynamic fidelity, visual quality, and interesting content for the concept of VR to take off and change the world in ways it failed to do so in past incarnations.
Some of the surprisingly long historical background of the technology that the form of direct simulation that underlies virtual environment and augmented reality displays will be briefly reviewed. An example of a mid 's augmented reality display system with good dynamic performance from our lab will be used to illustrate some of the underlying phenomena and technology concerning visual stability of virtual environments and objects during movement.
In conclusion some idealized performance characteristics for a reference system will be proposed. Interestingly, many systems more or less on the market now may actually meet many of these proposed technical requirements. This observation leads to the conclusion that the current success of the IT firms trying to commercialize the technology will depend on the hidden costs of using the systems as well as the development of interesting and compelling content.
Simulated laparoscopy using a head-mounted display vs traditional video monitor: an assessment of performance and muscle fatigue. The direction of visual gaze may be an important ergonomic factor that affects operative performance. Groups alternated between using the HMD with the task placed in a downward frontal position and the VMD with the task at a 30 degrees lateral angle.
The CELTS module assessed task completion time, depth perception, path length of instruments, response orientation, motion smoothness; the system then generated an overall score. Electromyography EMG was used to record sternocleidomastoid muscle activity.
Display preference was surveyed. The senior residents performed better than the junior residents overall on all parameters p display. Collision judgment when using an augmented-vision head-mounted display device. A device was developed to provide an expanded visual field to patients with tunnel vision by superimposing minified edge images of the wide scene, in which objects appear closer to the heading direction than they really are.
Experiments were conducted in a virtual environment to determine whether users would overestimate collision risks. Given simulated scenes of walking or standing with intention to walk toward a given direction intended walking in a shopping mall corridor, participants 12 normally sighted and 7 with tunnel vision reported whether they would collide with obstacles appearing at different offsets from variable walking paths or intended directions , with and without the device.
The collision envelope CE , a personal space based on perceived collision judgments, and judgment uncertainty variability of response were measured. When the device was used, combinations of two image scales 5x minified and and two image types grayscale or edge images were tested. Users did not substantially overestimate collision risk, as the x5 minified images had only limited impact on collision judgments either during walking or before starting to walk. Assessing balance through the use of a low-cost head-mounted display in older adults: a pilot study.
As the population ages, the prevention of falls is an increasingly important public health problem. Balance assessment forms an important component of fall-prevention programs for older adults. The recent development of cost-effective and highly responsive virtual reality VR systems means new methods of balance assessment are feasible in a clinical setting.
This proof-of-concept study made use of the submillimeter tracking built into modern VR head-mounted displays VRHMDs to assess balance through the use of visual-vestibular conflict. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, acceptability, and reliability of using a VRHMD to assess balance in older adults. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements from the VRHMD to measurements of postural sway from a force plate.
Acceptability was assessed through the use of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire pre- and postexposure to assess possible side effects of the visual-vestibular conflict. Reliability was assessed by measuring correlations between repeated measurements 1 week apart. The VR balance assessment consisted of four modules: a baseline module, a reaction module, a balance module, and a seated assessment.
There was a significant difference in the rate at which participants with a risk of falls changed their tilt in the anteroposterior direction compared to the control group. Participants with a risk of falls changed their tilt in the anteroposterior direction at 0. Neuf plongeurs de lutte contre les mines ont This proof-of-concept study made use of the submillimeter tracking built into modern VR head-mounted displays VRHMDs to assess balance through the use of visual—vestibular conflict.
Materials and methods: Validity was assessed by comparing measurements from the VRHMD to measurements of postural sway from a force plate. Acceptability was assessed through the use of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire pre- and postexposure to assess possible side effects of the visual—vestibular conflict. The VR balance assessment consisted of four modules: a baseline module, a reaction module, a.
The head-mounted microscope. Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results.
This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled.
We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery.
Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision.
Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery.
Evaluating the image quality of Closed Circuit Television magnification systems versus a head-mounted display for people with low vision. In this research, image analysis was used to optimize the visual output of a traditional Closed Circuit Television CCTV magnifying system and a head-mounted display HMD for people with low vision. There were two purposes: 1 To determine the benefit of using an image analysis system to customize image quality for a person with low vision, and 2 to have people with low vision evaluate a traditional CCTV magnifier and an HMD, each customized to the user's needs and preferences.
A CCTV system can electronically alter images by increasing the contrast, brightness, and magnification for the visually disabled when they are reading texts and pictures. The test methods was developed to evaluate and customize a magnification system for persons with low vision. The head-mounted display with CCTV was used to obtain better depth of field and a higher modulation transfer function from the video camera. By sensing the parameters of the environment e.
Breath-hold monitoring and visual feedback for radiotherapy using a charge-coupled device camera and a head-mounted display. System development and feasibility. The aim of this study was to present the technical aspects of the breath-hold technique with respiratory monitoring and visual feedback and to evaluate the feasibility of this system in healthy volunteers.
To monitor respiration, the vertical position of the fiducial marker placed on the patient's abdomen was tracked by a machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera.
A monocular head-mounted display was used to provide the patient with visual feedback about the breathing trace. Five healthy male volunteers were enrolled in this study. They held their breath at the end-inspiration and the end-expiration phases. They performed five repetitions of the same type of s breath-holds with and without a head-mounted display , respectively. A standard deviation of five mean positions of the fiducial marker during a s breath-hold in each breath-hold type was used as the reproducibility value of breath-hold.
All five volunteers well tolerated the breath-hold maneuver. For the inspiration breath-hold, the standard deviations with and without visual feedback were 1. For the expiration breath-hold, the standard deviations with and without visual feedback were 0.
Our newly developed system might help the patient achieve improved breath-hold reproducibility. This research describes Effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in young elementary school-aged children. This study examined the effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality VR type head-mounted display helmet for children undergoing cold pressor pain.
Fifty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered via a VR helmet or without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvements in pain threshold and pain tolerance during both distraction conditions.
However, the two distraction conditions did not differ in effectiveness. Using the VR helmet did not result in improved pain tolerance over and above the effects of interactive videogame distraction without VR technology. Clinical implications and possible developmental differences in elementary school-aged children's ability to use VR technology are discussed.
Helmet- Mounted Display Design Guide. Volumetric, dashboard- mounted augmented display. The optical design of a compact volumetric display for drivers is presented. The system displays a true volume image with realistic physical depth cues, such as focal accommodation, parallax and convergence. A large eyebox is achieved with a pupil expander. The windshield is used as the augmented reality combiner. A freeform windshield corrector is placed at the dashboard.
The seminar was composed of workshops and tutorials on head-mounted eye tracking, egocentric vision, optics, and head-mounted displays. The seminar welcomed 30 academic and industry researchers from Europe, the US, and Asia with a diverse background, including wearable and ubiquitous computing, computer vision, developmental psychology, optics, and human-computer interaction. In contrast to several previous Dagstuhl seminars, we used an ignite talk format to reduce the time of talks to Cognitive considerations for helmet- mounted display design.
Helmet- mounted displays HMDs are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information whether visual, auditory, or tactual to be displayed ; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action.
Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs. A universal and smart helmet- mounted display of large FOV. HMD head-mounted display is an important virtual reality device, which has played a vital role in VR application system.
Compared with traditional HMD which cannot be applied in the daily life owing to their disadvantage on the price and performance, a new universal and smart Helmet- Mounted Display of large FOV uses excellent performance and widespread popularity as its starting point. By adopting simplified visual system and transflective system that combines the transmission-type and reflection-type display system with transflective glass based on the Huggens-Fresnel principle, we have designed a HMD with wide field of view, which can be easy to promote and popularize.
Its weight is only g. It has caught up with the advanced world levels. Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment.
When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display , system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed.
Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications. This paper presents the preliminary results of these evaluations and describes current and future simulator and training applications for HMD technology. The AHMD blends computer-generated data symbology, synthetic imagery, enhanced imagery with the actual and simulated visible environment.
The AHMD is designed specifically for highly mobile deployable, minimum resource demanding reconfigurable virtual training systems to satisfy the military's in-theater warrior readiness objective. A description of the innovative AHMD system and future enhancements will be discussed. Parallax error in the monocular head-mounted eye trackers. The optimum distribution of the error magnitude and direction in the field of view varies for different applications. However, the results can be used for finding the optimum parameters that are needed for designing a head-mounted gaze tracker.
It has been shown Tackling the challenges of fully immersive head-mounted AR devices. The optical requirements of fully immersive head mounted AR devices are inherently determined by the human visual system. The etendue of the visual system is large. As a consequence, the requirements for fully immersive head-mounted AR devices exceeds almost any high end optical system.
Two promising solutions to achieve the large etendue and their challenges are discussed. Head-mounted augmented reality devices have been developed for decades - mostly for application within aircrafts and in combination with a heavy and bulky helmet. The established head -up displays for applications within automotive vehicles typically utilize similar techniques.
Recently, there is the vision of eyeglasses with included augmentation, offering a large field of view, and being unobtrusively all-day wearable. There seems to be no simple solution to reach the functional performance requirements. Known technical solutions paths seem to be a dead-end, and some seem to offer promising perspectives, however with severe limitations. As an alternative, unobtrusively all-day wearable devices with a significantly smaller field of view are already possible.
Allocation of Attention with Head -Up Displays. Two experiments examined the effects of display location head up vs. We present a novel, automatic eye gaze tracking scheme inspired by smooth pursuit eye motion while playing mobile games or watching virtual reality contents.
Our algorithm continuously calibrates an eye tracking system for a head mounted display. This eliminates the need for an explicit calibration step and automatically compensates for small movements of the headset with respect to the head. The algorithm finds correspondences between corneal motion and screen space motion, and uses these to An emerging thrust in this activity is the development of spatially-integrated, large field-of-regard information display systems.
Head -worn or helmet- mounted display systems are being proposed as one method in which to meet this objective. System delays or latencies inherent to spatially-integrated, head -worn displays critically influence the display utility, usability, and acceptability. Research results from three different, yet similar technical areas - flight control, flight simulation, and virtual reality - are collectively assembled in this paper to create a global perspective of delay or latency effects in head -worn or helmet- mounted display systems.
Future research areas are defined. These were 2. The focal length of these lenses was In the present study, we examined whether rivalry suppression could be objectively measured under conditions that simulated a monocular HMD and OTW display , and whether voluntary attention and moving Comparison of helmet- mounted display designs in support of wayfinding. The Canadian Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration SIREQ TD soldier modernization research and development program has conducted experiments to help determine the types and amount of information needed to support wayfinding across a range of terrain environments, the most effective display modality for providing the information visual, auditory or tactile that will minimize conflict with other infantry tasks, and to optimize interface design.
In this study, seven different visual helmet- mounted display HMD designs were developed based on soldier feedback from previous studies. The displays and an in-service compass condition were contrasted to investigate how the visual HMD interfaces influenced navigation performance. Displays varied with respect to their information content, frame of reference, point of view, and display features. Twelve male infantry soldiers used all eight experimental conditions to locate bearings to waypoints.
From a constant location, participants were required to face waypoints presented at offset bearings of 25, 65, and degrees. Performance measures included time to identify waypoints, accuracy, and head misdirection errors. Subjective measures of performance included ratings of ease of use, acceptance for land navigation, and mental demand. Comments were collected to identify likes, dislikes and possible improvements required for HMDs.
Results underlined the potential performance enhancement of GPS-based navigation with HMDs, the requirement for explicit directional information, the desirability of both analog and digital information, the performance benefits of an egocentric frame of reference, the merit of a forward field of view, and the desirability of a guide to help landmark. Implications for the information requirements and human factors design of HMDs for land-based navigational tasks are discussed.
We present MRTouch, a novel multitouch input solution for head-mounted mixed reality systems. Our system enables users to reach out and directly manipulate virtual interfaces affixed to surfaces in their environment, as though they were touchscreens.
Touch input offers precise, tactile and comfortable user input, and naturally complements existing popular modalities, such as voice and hand gesture. Our research prototype combines both depth and infrared camera streams together with real-time detection and tracking of surface planes to enable robust finger-tracking even when both the hand and head are in motion.
Our technique is implemented on a commercial Microsoft HoloLens without requiring any additional hardware nor any user or environmental calibration. Through our performance evaluation, we demonstrate high input accuracy with an average positional error of 5.
Finally, we demonstrate the potential of our technique to enable on-world touch interactions through 5 example applications. Displayed information projected directly onto observer's retinas, giving observer illusion of full-size computer display in foreground or background. Display stereoscopic, holographic, or in form of virtual image.
Used by pilots to view navigational information while looking outside or at instruments, by security officers to view information about critical facilities while looking at visitors, or possibly even stock-exchange facilities to view desktop monitors and overhead displays simultaneously. System includes acousto-optical tunable filter AOTF , which acts as both spectral filter and spatial light modulator. The use of additional information a.
Priors can be obtained from several distinct sources, such as: sensors to collect information related We compare the reprojected images with directly rendered images in a user test.
In most cases, the users were unable to distinguish the images. In extreme We conclude that pixel reprojection is a feasible method for rendering light fields as far as quality of perspective and diffuse shading is concerned, but render time needs to be reduced to make the method practical Exaggerated displays do not improve mounting success in male seaweed flies Fucellia tergina Diptera: Anthomyiidae. Signals of individual quality are assumed to be difficult to exaggerate, either because they are directly linked to underlying traits indices or because they are costly to perform handicaps.
In practise advertisement displays may consist of conventional and costly components, for instance where a morphological structure related to body size is used in visual displays.
In this case, there is the potential for dishonest displays , due to the population level variance around the relationship between body size and display structures. We examine the use of wing flicking displays that we observed in situ in a strandline dwelling seaweed fly Fucellia tergina, using overall body size and the size of their eyes as underlying indicators of condition. Males displayed far more frequently than females, and were also observed to frequently mount other flies, a behaviour that was rare in females.
The rate of display was greater for males that had positive residual values from relationships between wing length and body length. In other words those males with larger than expected wings for their underlying quality displayed more frequently, indicating that these displays are open to exaggeration. Males with larger than expected wings for the size of their body or eyes , however, mounted less frequently.
We suggest that small bodied males are less successful in terms of mounting , but that those small males with relatively large wings may attempt to compensate for this through increased display effort. Computer-enhanced stereoscopic vision in a head-mounted operating binocular. Based on the Varioscope, a commercially available head-mounted operating binocular, we have developed the Varioscope AR, a see through head-mounted display HMD for augmented reality visualization that seamlessly fits into the infrastructure of a surgical navigation system.
We have assessed the extent to which stereoscopic visualization improves target localization in computer-aided surgery in a phantom study. In order to quantify the depth perception of a user aiming at a given target, we have designed a phantom simulating typical clinical situations in skull base surgery. Sixteen steel spheres were fixed at the base of a bony skull, and several typical craniotomies were applied.
After having taken CT scans, the skull was filled with opaque jelly in order to simulate brain tissue. The positions of the spheres were registered using VISIT, a system for computer-aided surgical navigation. Then attempts were made to locate the steel spheres with a bayonet probe through the craniotomies using VISIT and the Varioscope AR as a stereoscopic display device. Localization of targets 4 mm in diameter using stereoscopic vision and additional visual cues indicating target proximity had a success rate defined as a first-trial hit rate of Using monoscopic vision and target proximity indication, the success rate was found to be Omission of visual hints on reaching a target yielded a success rate of Time requirements for localizing all 16 targets ranged from 7.
Navigation error is primarily governed by the accuracy of registration in the navigation system, whereas the HMD does not appear to influence localization significantly. We conclude that stereo vision is a valuable tool in augmented reality guided interventions. Instrument- mounted displays for reducing cognitive load during surgical navigation. Surgical navigation systems rely on a monitor placed in the operating room to relay information.
Optimal monitor placement can be challenging in crowded rooms, and it is often not possible to place the monitor directly beside the situs. The operator must split attention between the navigation system and the situs.
We present an approach for needle-based interventions to provide navigational feedback directly on the instrument and close to the situs by mounting a small display onto the needle. By mounting a small and lightweight smartwatch display directly onto the instrument, we are able to provide navigational guidance close to the situs and directly in the operator's field of view, thereby reducing the need to switch the focus of view between the situs and the navigation system.
We devise a specific variant of the established crosshair metaphor suitable for the very limited screen space.
We conduct an empirical user study comparing our approach to using a monitor and a combination of both. Results from the empirical user study show significant benefits for cognitive load, user preference, and general usability for the instrument- mounted display , while achieving the same level of performance in terms of time and accuracy compared to using a monitor. We successfully demonstrate the feasibility of our approach and potential benefits.
With ongoing technological advancements, instrument- mounted displays might complement standard monitor setups for surgical navigation in order to lower cognitive demands and for improved usability of such systems.
Head mounted device for point-of-gaze estimation in three dimensions. This paper presents a fully calibrated extended geometric approach for gaze estimation in three dimensions 3D. The methodology is based on a geometric approach utilising a fully calibrated binocular setup constructed as a head-mounted system. The approach is based on utilisation of two ordinary However, even though the workspace is limited, the fact that the system is designed as a head-mounted device, the workspace volume is relatively positioned to the pose of the device.
Hence gaze can be estimated in 3D with relatively free head Head -Worn Displays or so-called, near-to-eye displays have potentially significant advantages in terms of cost, overcoming cockpit space constraints, and for the display of spatially-integrated information. However, many technical issues need to be overcome before these technologies can be successfully introduced into commercial aircraft cockpits.
The results of three activities are reported. First, the near-to-eye display design, technological, and human factors issues are described and a literature review is presented.
Second, the results of a fixed-base piloted simulation, investigating the impact of near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance is reported. Straight-in approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a biocular or a monocular display placed on either the dominant or non-dominant eye.
The pilot's flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested. The data generally supports a monocular design with minimal impact due to eye dominance.
Finally, a method for head tracker system latency measurement is developed and used to compare two different devices. We describe a patient with hypothyroidism displaying "dropped head " syndrome. A year-old man visited our clinic because he was unable to hold his head in the natural position. He had weakness and hypertrophy of the neck extensor muscles. Tendon reflexes were diminished or absent in all limbs.
Mounding phenomena were observed in the bilateral upper extremities. Blood biochemical analysis revealed hypothyroidism, hyperlipidemia, and elevated levels of muscle-derived enzymes. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI of the neck demonstrated swelling and hyperintensity of the neck extensor muscles on T2-weighted images. The result of biopsy of the right biceps brachii muscle suggested mild atrophy of type 2 fibers.
The diameters of the muscle fibers exhibited mild variation. No inflammatory changes were observed.
Kenwood firmware update, to : CarAV
Check the firmware version. Follow these steps to check the currently installed firmware version of the unit: NOTE: If the version is displayed as , you do not need to update the firmware. Turn the main unit "ON". Select "Settings" from the Home screen. Select "General". Select "Firmware Version". The current Firmware version is then displayed. Apr 06, · Download Head unit ZXDZ stock firmware from here. To get it back to a working condition again. All you have to do is simply download the below-given Head unit ZXDZ firmware files and tools on your PC. And then follow the given instruction to install the Stock ROM on Head unit ZXDZ using SP Flash Tool. This guide is also helpful to easycars24.pls: 4. Want to add to the discussion? Oct 17, · There is a modified firmware on there which fixes a bug where the unit would not save a new selection of default firmware. - Some have figured out where to solder a usb connection in order to use adb and fastboot. This also allows for one to rescue an otherwise "bricked" head unit from a botched firmware install, etc. Don`t try to update the wrong android version firmware to any car stereo that will cause the original system collapsed and can`t be saved. If you are confused of which system firmware you need to download for system easycars24.pl make sure your unit is a SYGAV brand unit at first, and then contact with us and send 2 screenshots on the menu of. Sep 22, · This will take your head unit into forced firmware update (I think). After doing it repeatedly the unit told ME that it was doing firmware update (but no usb with update was plugged in). To another person in another forum that had the unit bricked it told him (after several presses) that there was an issue with his firmware and to rollback. Mar 31, · Apparently the positioning of the head unit relative to the actual power meter units is extremely sensitive. I positioned the head unit like in the picture in easycars24.pl file from Pioneer which allowed me to successfully update the left side, but not the right side. This is how I had to position the unit to update the right side: Re: Attempting.
Attempting Pioneer Power Meter Firmware Update Triathlon Forum: Slowtwitch Forums
Dumb trainer. I don't ride stationary. View Results. Login required to started new threads Login required to post replies. Quote Reply. Post 1 of 7 views. And so far It is not updating, and is resulting in bricking the right side.
The left side updated. Anybody tried to upgrade the firmware with the CA Computer and have any similar experiences or suggestions? PM was working fine, but the "version" went from 1. I hate firmware upgrades Only company worse is probably Garmin, haha. Thanks ST. Post 2 of 7 views. Hopefully this helps someone in the future Apparently the positioning of the head unit relative to the actual power meter units is extremely sensitive. I positioned the head unit like in the picture in the.
This is how I had to position the unit to update the right side:. Post 3 of 7 views. I sent my whole crankset in to Pioneer for dual side installation. I almost went with Precision 4iiii but they hadn't released the dual side to the public yet. Pioneer seemed to have good reviews and it's compatible with other head units. I didn't want to have to buy another head unit.
It's working well as a dual but now I need to contact Pioneer and see what they can do to fix it so I can hopefully get the left side working independently. That was the main reason I got it. When I tried taking off the left arm and putting it on my TT bike but my Garmin searches for it, but can't find it.
The local distributor had the pioneer software. He updated the firmware but it didn't help. Re-installing batteries or holding the little button in for 3 seconds didn't change anything.
Have you tried to use the Left arm separately? Post 4 of 7 views. I have not tried to use them independently and have no experience with that, sorry. Post 5 of 7 views. You sure am glad I happen to see your post. I was having the same issues updating the right side firmware.
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Vendors, please use this area to introduce yourselves, submit reddit-related discounts and sales, and occasionally promote new product lines. FuncGen Signal Generator Android. SoundForm Signal Generator Android.
AudioTool Android. Kenwood firmware update, 1. Has anyone had any success updating the firmware on their Kenwood Head Unit? My laptop will recognize it the headunit , but will not connect and let me update the firmware.
I'm trying to update it because when I connect my phone Samsung Galaxy S4 via Bluetooth there is an intermittent pause while I'm streaming music, and its very annoying. It seems like the fix is a firmware update. The current firmware is 1. In regards to the links, it's the same as on your computer. Square brackets around the [word] followed by round brackets around the link.
Thank you. Ive been trying to update using the parrot updater, and the correct update. Its pouring down rain here now, but when it stops ill try that. Thanks again. Ok I followed the instructions from the link you provided, and it started to update, but halfway through it keeps telling me, "flash update failed.
Slowtwitch coaching Coaches Directory. Workshops F. Compex Elite vs Performance - which one to get? Is a Normatec really worth it? Affordable Recovery Boots from Amazon. Ventum Official Ventum Owners Thread. Ok Fishes, here is the interview we were all waiting for!! August Fish thread 10k swim training.
Atrial Fibrillation what is Afib, really? Is swimming safe? Glute tightness and IT band issues 1 year anniversary of IT band syndrome! Mad Calf Disease Runners, calf strain? Mad Calf Disease How long to recover from a calf heart attack Help with calf issues! Calf muscle pull or tear? Calf Issues Aging, calf injuries, and running speed Statins Statins: experience training and racing on them Swim Related Injuries Swimming-Related Injuries: A literature review and injury risk screening.
Poll Next Stationary Bike Trainer. Stipulating to the ethic, "It's never too early to think about stationary," who makes your next stationary trainer, starting with the 3 popular smart bikes? Tacx NEO Bike. Other smart bike. Smart trainer Wahoo, Tacx, Saris, Elite, etc. Dumb trainer. I don't ride stationary. View Results. Login required to started new threads Login required to post replies. Quote Reply. Post 1 of 7 views. And so far It is not updating, and is resulting in bricking the right side.
The left side updated. Anybody tried to upgrade the firmware with the CA Computer and have any similar experiences or suggestions? PM was working fine, but the "version" went from 1. I hate firmware upgrades Only company worse is probably Garmin, haha. Thanks ST. Post 2 of 7 views. Hopefully this helps someone in the future Or join the rest of the reddit Audio Network in our channel on freenode, redditaudio! A subreddit specifically for vendors, reddit promotions, and introductions.
Vendors, please use this area to introduce yourselves, submit reddit-related discounts and sales, and occasionally promote new product lines. FuncGen Signal Generator Android. SoundForm Signal Generator Android. AudioTool Android.
Kenwood firmware update, 1. Has anyone had any success updating the firmware on their Kenwood Head Unit? My laptop will recognize it the headunit , but will not connect and let me update the firmware.
I'm trying to update it because when I connect my phone Samsung Galaxy S4 via Bluetooth there is an intermittent pause while I'm streaming music, and its very annoying.
It seems like the fix is a firmware update. The current firmware is 1. In regards to the links, it's the same as on your computer. Square brackets around the [word] followed by round brackets around the link. Thank you. Ive been trying to update using the parrot updater, and the correct update. Its pouring down rain here now, but when it stops ill try that. Thanks again. Ok I followed the instructions from the link you provided, and it started to update, but halfway through it keeps telling me, "flash update failed.
Try again". You got me further than I got on my own, but the damn update keeps failing now. The only thing I can think of is an error in the update file maybe?
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Swim Bike Run. Search menu. Race Calendar RD Aids. Slowtwitch coaching Coaches Directory. Workshops F. Compex Elite vs Performance - which one to get? Is a Normatec really worth it? Affordable Recovery Boots from Amazon. Ventum Official Ventum Owners Thread. Ok Fishes, here is the interview we were all waiting for!! August Fish thread 10k swim training. Atrial Fibrillation what is Afib, really?
Is swimming safe? Glute tightness and IT band issues 1 year anniversary of IT band syndrome! Mad Calf Disease Runners, calf strain?
Mad Calf Disease How long to recover from a calf heart attack Help with calf issues! Calf muscle pull or tear? Calf Issues Aging, calf injuries, and running speed Statins Statins: experience training and racing on them Swim Related Injuries Swimming-Related Injuries: A literature review and injury risk screening. Poll Next Stationary Bike Trainer. Stipulating to the ethic, "It's never too early to think about stationary," who makes your next stationary trainer, starting with the 3 popular smart bikes?
Tacx NEO Bike. Other smart bike. Smart trainer Wahoo, Tacx, Saris, Elite, etc. Dumb trainer. I don't ride stationary. View Results. Login required to started new threads Login required to post replies. Quote Reply. Post 1 of 7 views. And so far It is not updating, and is resulting in bricking the right side. The left side updated. Anybody tried to upgrade the firmware with the CA Computer and have any similar experiences or suggestions?
PM was working fine, but the "version" went from 1. I hate firmware upgrades Only company worse is probably Garmin, haha. Thanks ST.
Post 2 of 7 views. Hopefully this helps someone in the future Apparently the positioning of the head unit relative to the actual power meter units is extremely sensitive. I positioned the head unit like in the picture in the.
This is how I had to position the unit to update the right side:. Post 3 of 7 views. I sent my whole crankset in to Pioneer for dual side installation. I almost went with Precision 4iiii but they hadn't released the dual side to the public yet. Pioneer seemed to have good reviews and it's compatible with other head units. I didn't want to have to buy another head unit. It's working well as a dual but now I need to contact Pioneer and see what they can do to fix it so I can hopefully get the left side working independently.
That was the main reason I got it. When I tried taking off the left arm and putting it on my TT bike but my Garmin searches for it, but can't find it.
The local distributor had the pioneer software. He updated the firmware but it didn't help. Re-installing batteries or holding the little button in for 3 seconds didn't change anything. Have you tried to use the Left arm separately? Post 4 of 7 views. I have not tried to use them independently and have no experience with that, sorry. Post 5 of 7 views. You sure am glad I happen to see your post.
I was having the same issues updating the right side firmware. It was getting frustrating. I guess positioning is the key. I moved the head unit within inches and had no further issue.
Yes, your post helped a lot!! Post 6 of 7 views. FYI, we're up to V 5. Post 7 of 7 views. Just checking this thread to make sure problems are good? I have the PM dual and The firmware of the head unit priors no issues If it is multiple users, I may follow up with Pioneer on the update issues, if any.
Back The firmware of the head unit priors Forum Print Thread. Twitter Vimeo Facebook Youtube. Newsletter Sign up for the Slowtwitch newsletter. The firmware of the head unit priors with us.
Poll Next Stationary Bike Trainer. Requests made without using this feature will be ignored. Is a Normatec really worth it? He updated the firmware but it didn't help. Get an ad-free experience with special benefits, and directly support Reddit. You got me further than I got on my own, but the damn update keeps failing now. AudioTool Android.